Mandible and Teeth

by Darren Salmi, MD, MS

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    00:01 Now let's talk about the mandible and the teeth.

    00:05 The anterior portion of the mandible is called the body.

    00:10 Then the more vertically oriented portion is called the ramus.

    00:14 And where the two meet is called the angle.

    00:18 Superiorly, the ramus has a couple of processes.

    00:22 We see posteriorly, there's a neck and a head, that together make up the condylar process, and more anteriorly, we have the coronoid process.

    00:33 In between we have a notch called the mandibular notch.

    00:37 On the body, we see there's a little hole or frame and called the mental foramen.

    00:42 And mental in this sense actually refers to the chin.

    00:47 And this is where we'll have the mental branch of cranial nerve V3 or the mandibular branch of the trigeminal nerve.

    00:55 Again, if we zoom in, we see the base of the mandible here.

    00:59 And we see the superior portion of it is what's called the alveolar part.

    01:04 Alveolar in this context refers to the sockets of the tooth.

    01:07 So alveolar tells you were talking about the teeth.

    01:12 The bump most anteriorly is called the mental protuberance and again, in this case, mental means chin.

    01:20 We also have another bump, a little more laterally called the mental tubercle which can serve as attachment points for muscles.

    01:29 If we swing around to a posterior view, we can see some more bumps, here we see the pterygoid tuberosity.

    01:37 And of course we have muscles of mastication or chewing that are called pterygoid muscles hence the name.

    01:43 Again, we have a spine called the mental spine which is towards the chin, hence how it gets the name mental.

    01:50 And we have an opening here called the mandibular foramen, which is the entrance to the mandibular canal.

    01:56 And it's protected by a little piece of bone called the lingula.

    02:01 We also have a little groove here called the mylohyoid line, On either side of the mylohyoid line, we have little depressions or fovea.

    02:13 Superiorly, we had the sublingual fovea, and inferiorly, we have the submandibular fovea.

    02:19 And these depressions are where we're going to find the sublingual and submandibular glands, respectively.

    02:27 If we look at the mandible from above, from a superior point of view, we can see the teeth.

    02:32 We see going from posterior to anterior, we have three molars, to premolars, one canine and two incisors on either side.

    02:46 When it comes to the innervation of these lower teeth, at least, we're talking about the mandibular branch of the trigeminal nerve, or cranial nerve V3.

    02:57 This is going to give a few branches.

    03:00 One is going to be the lingual branch and as the name implies, it's going to supply the tongue.

    03:05 Then the other branch is called the inferior alveolar branch.

    03:10 And that's going to travel inside that mandibular foramen or mandibular canal to supply the lower teeth.

    03:19 It's going to continue on through the mental foramen more anteriorly in the body of the mandible to become the mental branch.

    03:29 Superiorly, we have the maxillary branch of trigeminal or cranial nerve V2.

    03:36 Giving multiple superior alveolar branches: anterior, middle and posterior.

    03:42 The mandible is essentially the only bone of the skull that actually moves since all of the other bones of the skull are held tightly together by sutures.

    03:53 The mandible actually has a true synovial joint called the temporomandibular joint.

    04:00 So here we see the coronoid process more anteriorly and more posterior really on the ramus of the mandible, we see the head.

    04:08 On the temporal bone we have the styloid process and mastoid process.

    04:13 As well as the external acoustic meatus.

    04:17 We have the zygomatic arch in this area which again is composed of portions of both the zygomatic bone and the temporal bone.

    04:28 And if we were to fade away the mandible to see it a little bit better, here we see the styloid process with a ligament that keeps the mandible in place called the stylomandibular ligament.

    04:41 We also see a bit of the sphenoid bone here and another ligament, holding things in place called the sphenomandibular ligament.

    04:52 If we zoom in a little bit more, we have yet another ligament with the temporal bone, this one called the temporal mandibular ligament.

    05:01 Zooming in a little bit, we have another joint between the temporal bone and mandibular bone called the temporomandibular joint.

    05:08 Just deep to that is the capsule for the temporal mandibular joint.

    05:14 And again, this joint is an actual synovial joint just like you would have in the near the elbow, in the sense that it has a lot of movement here.

    05:25 It's a joint capsule surrounding a joint space just like any other synovial joint.

    05:31 But what makes this joint special is that it actually has an articular disc, which actually separates the synovial cavity into two separate cavities above and below.

    05:42 And this helps achieve the multiple degrees of freedom we have at the temporomandibular joint during chewing.

    About the Lecture

    The lecture Mandible and Teeth by Darren Salmi, MD, MS is from the course Skull.

    Included Quiz Questions

    1. At the angle of the mandible
    2. At the neck of the mandible
    3. At the intersecting region of the mandible
    4. At the fossa of the mandible
    5. At the foramen of the mandible
    1. CN V3
    2. CN V2
    3. CN V1
    4. CN VI
    5. CN VII
    1. 12
    2. 9
    3. 8
    4. 10
    5. 3
    1. Temporomandibular joint
    2. Styloid joint
    3. Mandibular joint
    4. Coronoid joint
    5. Sphenoid joint

    Author of lecture Mandible and Teeth

     Darren Salmi, MD, MS

    Darren Salmi, MD, MS

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