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Malignant Neoplasm: Invasion and Metastasis – Neoplasia

by Carlo Raj, MD
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    Our topic goes into malignancies. And we will talk about those things that we were referring to earlier. What is the thing that you are worried about the most in malignancy? All that increased proliferation of your cell like crazy. Tell me about your nuclear to cytoplasmic ratio. Increased. Why? Because of all that mitosis. Remember that picture that I showed you with the metaphase, where all the chromosomes lined up in the middle. And it gave it that dark little unique structure. Let me walk you through this. On your left, is a transformed cell and you could have many hits. Maybe it's a p53 type of mutation. Maybe it's a BRAF. So on and so forth. As the cell continues to grow and proliferate, and it becomes malignant. You are going to move to the right. Let me give you an example what this organ might be so that you clearly understand what is going on here. This is extremely important. We'll go ahead and call this a colon, okay? A colon. On your left, is the lumen of the colon. As you move to the right, what's happening is that the cell is proliferating. You see that basement membrane. At that basement membrane, you will notice that if there is enough proliferation, you will go from what's known as in-situ. What's in-situ mean? In-situ is malignant cancer. Is that clear? In-situ is malignant cancer. We will talk further about that. So, what's the difference between in-situ and metastasis? In-situ would be the membrane intact, you'll notice please, that the cell is busting right through that basement membrane. Penetrating right through there. Give me some basics in biochem. The basement membrane is made up of? What kind of collagen? I,II,III,IV or V? IV for the floor. Amazingly, these...

    About the Lecture

    The lecture Malignant Neoplasm: Invasion and Metastasis – Neoplasia by Carlo Raj, MD is from the course Cellular Pathology: Basic Principles.


    Included Quiz Questions

    1. Metastasis
    2. Increased proliferation
    3. Increased nuclear to cytoplasm ratio
    4. Clonal expansion
    5. Increased mitotic rate
    1. Interact with host lymphoid cells and platelets
    2. Extravasation
    3. Intravasation
    4. Angiogenesis
    5. Metastatic growth
    1. VEGF
    2. S100
    3. Collagenase
    4. Fibronectin
    5. Colony proliferation factor
    1. In situ malignancy
    2. Infiltration of adjacent tissues
    3. Infiltration of vessels
    4. Lymph node involvement
    5. Angiogenesis and clonal spread

    Author of lecture Malignant Neoplasm: Invasion and Metastasis – Neoplasia

     Carlo Raj, MD

    Carlo Raj, MD


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    Exceptional teaching
    By Rizal H. on 19. April 2017 for Malignant Neoplasm: Invasion and Metastasis – Neoplasia

    Your lectures are exceptional, it makes reading the books much easier. Thank you