So the Golgi apparatus also produces some
specialized types of vesicles. We call them lysosomes.
There are many different kinds of lysosomes.
In this case, we will discuss ones that are in charge of
dealing with trash and recycling in the cell.
There are definitely organelles that become old
and need to be broken down and degraded.
What happens to those?
This is the lysosomes comes in.
It's full of enzymes that are good at breaking things down.
Those enzymes are proteins and so they would probably
initially have been made at the endoplasmic reticulum
and shipped through the shipping center
and come out the other side packaged as lysosomes
and labelled and ready to do their job.
What they will do is bind with a dead or decaying organelle and
release their enzymes into that cell and break down the components.
When it's done with that break down process, it will take the
vesicle that's a combined dead organelle with the lysosome and
dump it out at the cell surface so that those metabolites can
make their way out in the blood and through the excretory systems.
The other use of lysosomes or lysosome like structures is
in the assistance of cellular eating, so the opposite process.
When a cell gets nutrients into it, how does it break them down?
Well that's where lysosomes come into play again.
So we have a food vacuole,
that's the cell has taken in a nice chunk of food,
and the lysosome will bind with that food, help the cell digest
that food, and then it will be released inside the cell
so that those nutrients or components that the cell needs
can be utilized within that cell.
So again, we had this whole endomembrane system,
where proteins are manufactured at the endoplasmic reticulum.
If they're to go, they bind to the endoplasmic reticulum,
drop the proteins off in there.
You ship them from endoplasmic reticulum to the shipping center,
and then the shipping center will send them out
in the appropriate vehicle
to either exit the cell or help in digestion
in the case of lysosomes.
Now there are some problems when lysosomes
don't work out quite well, like Tay-Sachs disease.
And you can imagine what happens there.
What if lysosomes are not working well?
What do you think could happen?
The cell is going to fill up with trash and recycling
and that's no good.
So individuals with Tay-Sachs disease end up having
very toxic environment inside their cells very rapidly.