Integral Examples 2

by Batool Akmal

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    00:01 Let’s have a look at our next set of examples.

    00:04 Now, I’ve put them together here because I want you to try them out before we do them.

    00:08 So take a moment to just try these out.

    00:11 Remember that the last two, we haven’t done yet as an example.

    00:15 But I’m just going to give you a little hint of thinking about ln,s.

    00:19 Remember that when you integrate 1 over x, you get ln of x.

    00:23 So try and relate that to these questions and see if you can figure this out for yourselves.

    00:29 So, let’s try our first example in the exercise.

    00:34 We have the integral of 5e to the 3x-1dx.

    00:42 This is very similar to one of the examples that we did together in the lecture.

    00:47 Remember that when you integrate, the 5 stays as it is, so that doesn’t bother us.

    00:51 This is a big function and a little function, but don’t forget, you are integrating it.

    00:57 When you integrate the big function, it doesn’t change, so that stays as e to the 3x minus 1.

    01:03 But remember to divide it by the differential.

    01:06 So the differential of this is just 3.

    01:08 So we can rewrite this as 5 over 3, e to the 3x minus 1.

    01:14 Nothing really simplifies, so we put a + c at the end.

    01:18 Okay.

    01:19 Here is your little challenge.

    01:21 We are now trying to integrate 1 over 1 plus x dx.

    01:26 Let’s see the kind of things you could have done and let’s see why we shouldn’t have done them.

    01:31 So, let’s have a look at this.

    01:32 I’ve got one over 1 plus x dx.

    01:37 Now, when we were differentiating things like this, we often brought the entire function up to the top.

    01:42 So I could rewrite this, and I’m going to tell you now that isn’t correct, but I’m just showing you why this isn’t.

    01:50 And remember now that if I added 1 to the power and divided it by new power.

    01:54 So imagine if I added 1 to the power, 1 plus x minus 1 plus 1, I get an answer of 1 plus x to the power of 0, which is just 1.

    02:05 Which is basically saying that the area under this curve is 1 all the time, and that’s not true.

    02:11 You can change the area.

    02:12 You can take smaller areas and bigger areas with the limits that you put in.

    02:16 However, this gives us no chance to put any values in to find the areas.

    02:24 So this is obviously flawed.

    02:26 We need to think of a different method.

    02:28 Let’s just cross this out.

    02:31 Now, I’m going to take you back to remembering what the differential of ln of x was.

    02:38 So, if we just remind ourselves that ln of x, when you differentiated it, dy by dx, so if I put y before this, gave you 1 over x.

    02:50 So when we were introducing all these identities, we said that the integral of 1 over x dx was ln of x.

    02:59 Now, compare that with what you have here.

    03:02 Instead of being just x, you have 1 plus x.

    03:08 So, look at this carefully for a moment.

    03:10 You’ll see that if you have 1 over x goes to ln of x, 1 over 1 plus x to the power of 1, just the way we have a power of 1 here, must go to something that has ln in it.

    03:24 So I’m going to give you a rule that’s going to help you integrate this.

    03:28 The rule states this.

    03:30 If you have an integral with f of x at the bottom, and remember this is a linear f of x, that means it’s f of x to the power of 1.

    03:41 And if you notice that the differential of this function is at the top, the answer to this is just ln of the function at the bottom plus c.

    03:52 Now, I’ve put the absolute value there to keep it positive, which we do when we’re dealing with ln's because ln's is only -- ln graph is only true for all positive values of x.

    04:04 But once again, let me just remind you, just get rid of that power so it doesn’t look like it’s a differential.

    04:13 If you have the integral and you can see that there’s a function at the bottom, that doesn’t have a power so you don’t want to move it up because otherwise, it will cancel out like I showed you earlier.

    04:24 If you have a function at the bottom and then you can see that the differential of this function is at the top, the answer to that is just ln of that function plus c.

    04:35 So, let’s get rid of this power so it doesn’t look very confusing.

    04:39 That was 1 plus x.

    04:40 And let’s see if we can apply that rule here.

    04:43 The first thing that you need to spot here is that this is going to integrate to an ln function because we can’t take this up.

    04:51 If I did take it up, remember what I showed you earlier, that the powers cancel out and you just get an answer of 1.

    04:57 So, we don’t do that.

    04:58 You just recognize that this must be an ln function.

    05:02 The next thing, look at the number that you have at the top.

    05:06 So firstly, the number that we have at the top is 1.

    05:12 Look at this function here, 1 plus x, what is the differential of 1 plus x? So the differential of 1 plus x is 1.

    05:21 So, you are actually agreeing or you’re actually satisfying this rule here.

    05:28 That if you have a function at the bottom, in our case, that’s 1 plus x, the differential of that is at the top, which is 1.

    05:36 So the answer to this must be ln of 1 plus x plus c.

    05:41 So, it’s just ln of this function at the bottom because the integral -- because the differential at the top is the differential of the function at the bottom.

    05:51 This is going to take a little bit more practice, and then we’ll see that we’ll start to get better at this.

    05:57 So, our next example for ln's.

    06:01 My function here is 7 over 3 plus 8x dx.

    06:09 First thing, remember, you may be tempted to take 3 plus 8x up and change its power.

    06:17 But remember what happened when we did that last time? The power is cancelled out to give you to the power of 0, so the entire area became 1.

    06:25 And remember that that is flawed because that can’t be the area everywhere.

    06:29 The area could be bigger or smaller.

    06:32 So, what we need to do firstly is to recognize that this must be an ln function.

    06:38 Okay.

    06:39 The definition for that was this.

    06:41 If I have a function f of x at the bottom and I see the differential of the function at the top, my answer is ln of that function plus c.

    06:52 I have a function here at the bottom.

    06:55 What is the differential of this, 3 plus 8x? The differential of that is 8.

    07:01 Do I have 8 at the top? I don’t.

    07:03 I have 7.

    07:05 So there’s a couple of things that I need to do.

    07:08 I can tweak this equation.

    07:10 Firstly, I’m allowed to move the 7 out of the integral.

    07:13 It’s just the number, it’s just the constant, so I’ll take it out and I still got 3 plus 8x dx on the inside.

    07:22 So the 7 is just the constant, it’s not going to be integrated.

    07:26 You can take it out of the integral just to make our lives a little bit easier.

    07:30 Okay, so what do we want now? For this to be an ln function, 3 plus 8x, the differential of this is 8, so we want 8 at the top.

    07:38 Let me just show you how I’m tweaking this in my mind.

    07:42 I want 8 to be at the top.

    07:46 If that happens, then my answer will give me the integral, will satisfy this equation here.

    07:55 However, the 8, I put in myself.

    07:59 So because I tweaked it myself, I have to make up for it; I can’t just cheat.

    08:03 So because I put that 8 there, I’m going to divide it by an 8 on the outside just to make it fair.

    08:10 So because I multiplied it with an 8, I can divide it with an 8; 8 divided by 8 is just 1, so I’m not changing the equation.

    08:19 Now, let’s look at our equation or our integral.

    08:23 Just look here on the inside.

    08:25 I have a function, 3 plus 8x, and I have the integral of that at the top, which is 8.

    08:31 So, that’s all good news.

    08:32 That means that this entire thing can integrate to ln of 3 plus 8x.

    08:42 So, that’s good news.

    08:43 But don’t forget that you have this little value on the outside.

    08:46 So we’re going to put 7 over 8 on the outside because that’s the little tweaking that we did.

    08:52 And then you put a plus c at the end.

    08:54 And that is the answer to this integral.

    08:57 It’s one of the harder ones and it does require you to recognize it first.

    09:01 And that’s why it’s so important to remember all your different rules and all your different types of functions so you can keep remembering them as you go through it.

    09:10 If you notice that there is a function at the bottom of an integral, and that’s all to the power of 1 or it doesn’t have a power, don’t be tempted to move it all up because it will cancel out.

    09:25 But instead, try and integrate it or tweak it into an ln function because the answer will be an ln function but you just need to make sure that you put the differential of that function at the top.

    09:36 If it’s not there at the top, you can put it there yourselves, but as long as you make up for it.

    09:41 Any extra bits that you multiply, divide it on the outside so you make up for the little tweaks that you’ve made to the equation.

    About the Lecture

    The lecture Integral Examples 2 by Batool Akmal is from the course Advanced Integration.

    Included Quiz Questions

    1. ln | (x + 2) | +c
    2. ln |x| +c
    3. (x + 2)² + c
    4. [1 / (x + 2)²] + c
    5. [1 / (x + 2)²]
    1. (7/2) ln | (2x + 1) | + c
    2. 7 ln | (2x + 1) | + c
    3. (7/2) ln | (x + 1) | + c
    4. (1/2) ln | (2x + 1) | + c
    5. (1/2) ln | (x + 1) | + c
    1. 3x + 4
    2. (1/x) + 3
    3. x³ + 2x + 3
    4. x - x²
    1. -ln | (1 - 5x) | + c
    2. ln | (1 - 5x) | + c
    3. 5 ln | (1 - 5x) | + c
    4. -5 ln | (1 - 5x) | + c
    5. [(1/5) ln | (1 - 5x) |] + c

    Author of lecture Integral Examples 2

     Batool Akmal

    Batool Akmal

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