Future Needs for Vaccines: Influenza, Malaria, Tuberculosis, HIV

by Peter Delves, PhD

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    There is a need for both new vaccines and improved versions of existing vaccines. For example, better vaccines against influenza, malaria, TB, and we still desperately need a vaccine against HIV. The vaccines against influenza are perfectly good. The problem is that the influenza virus is changing all the time by mutations. And therefore the vaccine needs to be administered every year to provide protection against new variants of the virus. The influenza virus can undergo two types of genetic change. We call them antigenic drift and antigenic shift. Antigenic drift refers to point mutation. The neuraminidase and hemaglutinin antigens in the influenza virus can undergo point mutations. And as you can see in this diagram with the little red dot; if you look carefully there you’ll see a little red dot has appeared. This is to indicate a point mutation that will lead to a slight change in one or other of those two antigens - the neuraminidase or the hemaglutinin antigens. This will mean that people exposed to the previous version will have partial immunity but not full immunity to this new variant. In contrast, antigenic shift involves the exchange of genetic material. So for example, there may be exchange between a human influenza virus and an avian influenza virus. This exchange of genetic material creates a completely new strain of human influenza virus to which hardly anybody is immune. These new variants of the virus can then sweep through the world and cause pandemics. With the current annual vaccine for influenza, there is a global surveillance for emerging strains. The FDA advisory panel selects three strains, that is thought will be the dominant strains for the coming winter season. These are manufactured and tested. They’re distributed and then individuals are vaccinated. However because this has to occur...

    About the Lecture

    The lecture Future Needs for Vaccines: Influenza, Malaria, Tuberculosis, HIV by Peter Delves, PhD is from the course Vaccine Immunology. It contains the following chapters:

    • Future Needs for Vaccines
    • Influenza Vaccines
    • Malaria Vaccines
    • Tuberculosis Vaccines
    • HIV Vaccines

    Included Quiz Questions

    1. 3
    2. 1
    3. 2
    4. 5
    5. 6
    1. The pre-erythrocyte stage
    2. In subcutaneous tissue
    3. The erythrocyte stage
    4. In infected erythrocytes
    5. In blood plasma
    1. Children and healthcare workers at high risk of exposure to drug-resistant strains
    2. Healthcare workers in the US
    3. Everyone in the US
    4. Adults who have been exposed to drug-resistant strains
    5. Children who have had miliary disease in the past
    1. Tetanus
    2. HIV
    3. Parasitic infections
    4. Hepatitis
    5. TB

    Author of lecture Future Needs for Vaccines: Influenza, Malaria, Tuberculosis, HIV

     Peter Delves, PhD

    Peter Delves, PhD

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