Now, what is the
Influence of Social Factors on Identity Formation?
Now, the influence of other individual
is really, really unique.
And I think again we can all relate to this and there's
a phenomenon called this the Looking-glass self
which proposes an individual’s sense of
self develops from interpersonal interactions
with others in society and the perception of others.
So in English, what we are going to say is
“You shape yourself."
And what you feel and think about yourself,
your identity is formed
by those relationships with those around you.
So who your friends? Who do you hang out with?
Who do you talk to at work?
All of that will shape, help shape of your identity.
So if you hang around, interact with a lot intelligent folks
that will then help identify you.
You yourself will say,
“Well, I hang out with a lot of smart people.
I’m a collegiate. I’m at on academic.”
versus “I really am into sports.
I hang out with a lot of jocks.
I play a lot of sports, we talk about sports.”
that’s going to shape your identity.
So we call that the looking-glass self.
It develops at an early age and contributes throughout life
helping shape your self-concepts.
So as again a lot of these factors are
long drawn out developmental things
that happened over a period of time.
Now, Social behaviorism suggests the mind
and self-emerges through the social process
of communicating with others.
So social we know is interacting with people
in our social environment engaging
and behaviorism is your behavior.
What we’re saying is
your eventual identity is formed through
the behaviors that you do in the
social setting through the social process
of communicating with others.
Like I implied.
So looking-glass self and social behaviorism
are obviously linked.
Now, let’s go through how we can actually
gather some of this information.
The influence of other individuals.
Now, you may know as little kids,
what we love to do is imitate, right.
So imitation is when an individual
observes and replicates another behavior.
Now, this is unlimited to young children
because we know as adults,
we imitate what we see a lot of the time
whether it’s a pop star or
a role model that we are [inaudible 00:02:03,8]
we will try to imitate I mean like
their behaviors and their action, right.
So this happens very early in development.
and is considered innate by many
and involve something called mirror neurons.
What we’re saying here is that when you’re
a small small baby or even you’re toddler,
we know that everybody across the board,
globally speaking children tend to imitate.
And so that’s where they say,
“Well, this is maybe not a learned behavior.
This is an innate behavior meaning
something that’s found from within.
And there are this specialized neurons
called mirror neurons.
And this mirror neurons are neurons
that are found that will fire
when you’re either doing an action or
you’re watching somebody doing an action.
So that’s what we called mirror.
They’re mirroring an activity.
So you see somebody lifting up
a glass and laughing and you do that
'cause you’re copying those
mirror neurons will fire.
You just watching that person do
the same activity will have them fire.
So they sort of believed that these
mirror neurons will help reinforce
or help that imitation happen because
they’re watching and reinforcing the behavior.
Infants imitate simple reflex behavior
while toddlers and young children imitate roles.
And I would add to this, that adults
imitates actual personality and identity.
You can see they start with a small steps
or say it’s the simple things like you saying,
“Dadadada” or saying “Look at the cute baby.”
And that you’re saying this with the baby,
the baby going to see that.
and the baby going to replicate some
of the words and sounds you’re making.
If the baby sees you combing your hair
and might try to do simple things like that.
And as they get a little bit older, toddlers
will start to play “Mommy” and or play “Daddy “
And they’ll see that all mom
always wears heels and wears a dress
and they’ll sneak in and get
all your lipstick and cover their face
and put on the dress and come on the heels.
And their pretending to play mommy.
Or if they’re playing you buy your child
a little kitchen set and they’re cooking.
and what are they trying to do?
they try to copy mom or dad
whoever is doing the cooking
and they do this role behavior imitating roles.
And so again, these all falls under imitation.
Imitation is when we know that
the desired behavior is something that
the behavior is saying as the desired behavior.
It something that they want to see
and do and which is why they replicate.
Imitation and role-taking are related but is different.
We can imitate simple behaviors
and role-taking as much more specific.
Now we have taken on that role and with
that role comes a behaviors and an identity.
So appreciate that other’s views
and roles different from their own
and how our actions will affect others.
So here all were saying, is when
you have a certain viewpoint,
and you have a different role
that might differ from those around you,
and the actions that you take will affect others,
and the actions that other take will affect you.
Again, this interactive process
will shape your identity.
Role-taking ability involves understanding
the cognitive and affective aspects of that role.
What we’re saying here,
is if I’m going to play say doctor,
as a youngster and I’m pretending to be
a doctor you need to then as a child
grasp and understand the moods, emotions
and attitudes that a doctor would have.
Otherwise, how would I know your sort of
playing a doctor or a teacher.
So we know let’s use teacher as an example,
we know the teachers talk in
a certain way and they’re very motherly,
and they’re very calm and patient.
And so all of a sudden if
you’re pretending to be a teacher
what are some of the first things you do?
You say “Well, I’m going to play a teacher now.
Hi little Timmy, how are you?
Let’s read books today.”
So just acting and talking in
that fashion is you understanding
the cognitive and affective roles
that a teacher has.
And so you’re bringing contexts,
you’re bringing depth to the role.
but in order to do the role well
you need to understand all those
moods, emotions and attitudes.
Okay so let’s now take a look
at the influence of groups.
'cause we’re looking at individuals
there in terms of roles and imitation.
But what impact does the group have?
So an individual have a reference group.
This is a frame of reference for understanding.
And there’s a different aspects that
the group can bring to the table.
There's perceptions, cognitions and ideas of self.
These helps to guide one’s identity
by identifying differences in
characteristics, behavior and attitudes.
Okay, we should know those three.
The perceptions, cognitions and ideas of
self that’s linked to characteristics
differences in characteristics,
behaviors and attitudes.