Human Karyotype – Meiosis

by Georgina Cornwall, PhD

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    00:00 Now, let's take a moment to look at the human condition. The human chromosome condition. Recall that we have homologous chromosomes. 23 pairs. They look like this. We have one that came from the mother.

    00:17 It has a grey one here that would illustrate the replication. But let's just look at the red one for now.

    00:24 And then one from the father. So that results in 46 chromosomes. The ones that are all highlighted in green here are called autosomes. Those are all involved in general gene expression. Then there is two that are non-homologous. They are the sex chromosomes. The sex chromosomes are the X and the Y.

    00:45 You're probably familiar with those. But they are non-homologous because they don't exactly match up.

    00:51 The Y is tiny. It doesn't have much on it. And the X is much larger. I don't know. Maybe it has more complexity and that explains some of the differences between men and women. Anyway, moving forward, during meiosis we end up splitting each of these chromosomes into individual eggs or the gametes.

    01:10 And so we have one copy of each. Sometimes you end up with an X and sometimes you end up with a Y, if it's in spermatogenesis or the generation of sperm. And in females, we will always end up with X. So,

    About the Lecture

    The lecture Human Karyotype – Meiosis by Georgina Cornwall, PhD is from the course Cell Cycle and Cell Division.

    Included Quiz Questions

    1. During the reductive division, sister chromatids migrate to opposite poles of the cell.
    2. During the reductive division, homologs migrate to opposite poles of the cell.
    3. During the reductive division, centromeres do not divide.
    4. At the end of the reductive division, each daughter nucleus has one-half as many centromeres as the parental nucleus.
    5. After the reductive division, each daughter cell has 23 chromosomes.
    1. The human ovum and sperm are produced via somatic cells.
    2. A hepatic cell in a human body contains 23 pairs of chromosomes in its nucleus.
    3. The gametes (ovum or sperm) are haploid.
    4. Human cells contain 22 pairs of autosomes and one pair of sex chromosomes.
    5. The nuclei of skin cells of a human male always contain non-homologous sex chromosomes.

    Author of lecture Human Karyotype – Meiosis

     Georgina Cornwall, PhD

    Georgina Cornwall, PhD

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