Gustation: Sense of Taste (Nursing)

by Jasmine Clark, PhD

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    00:02 The next sense that we're going to talk about is gustation or our sense of taste.

    00:08 Like smell, taste is a chemical sense but it is much simpler than olfaction.

    00:16 There are five primary tastes: sour, sweet, bitter, salt and umami which is like a meaty taste.

    00:28 The taste buds contain receptors for the sensation of taste.

    00:34 Approximately 10,000 taste buds are found on the tongue of a young adult and on the soft palate, pharynx and epiglottis.

    00:44 The taste buds contain three different types of epithelial cells.

    00:49 We have the supporting cells which are going to surround about 50 gustatory receptor cells.

    00:57 These cells contain small hairs referred to as gustatory microvilli that project from the taste pore in the taste bud.

    01:08 Within each taste bud, we also have basal cells.

    01:12 These are stem cells that produce the supporting cells and these supporting cells will subsequently become our gustatory receptor cells.

    01:24 In this image of the taste bud, notice the gustatory receptor cells which contain gustatory taste hairs that protrude from the taste pore toward the oral cavity.

    01:37 And this is what is going to come in contact with our tastants.

    01:42 Taste buds are located in elevations on the tongue called papillae.

    01:47 There are three types of papillae that contain taste buds in our mouth First we had the vallate papillae which are located on the back of the tongue.

    01:58 There about 12 of these papillae and each of them contains about 100 to 300 taste buds.

    02:06 The other type of papillae is the fungiform papillae.

    02:10 These are scattered all over the tongue with about five taste buds each.

    02:16 On the lateral trenches of the tongue on the sides, we have our foliate papillae.

    02:22 These are going to contain taste buds but most of them are going to degenerate in our early childhood.

    02:30 A fourth type of papillae is the filiform papillae.

    02:34 This covers the entire surface of the tongue.

    02:39 These are going to be tactile papillae that do not contain any taste buds.

    02:47 They are responsible for increasing friction which makes it easier for the tongue to move food within the mouth.

    02:57 Tastants are going to stimulate the gustatory receptor cells at the microvilli found at the top of the taste pore.

    03:07 Receptor potentials can arise from multiple routes.

    03:11 One way that we can get a receptor potential is when a tastant enters directly into the receptor cell.

    03:20 This is gonna to happen with the salty taste as well as the sour taste where sodium or H+ are able to enter into the gustatory cells.

    03:32 Another way we get a receptor potential is when a tastant binds to a G protein-coupled receptor found in the membrane of the gustatory receptor cells.

    03:43 This is how we taste taste such as sweet, bitter and umami.

    03:50 The gustatory receptor cell can only respond to one type of tastant.

    03:56 And each taste bud is going to contain different types of receptor cells so that we can interpret the different taste that come into our mouths.

    04:07 In the gustatory pathway, the taste buds are innervated by three cranial nerves.

    04:14 This includes the facial nerve which is going to carry taste information from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue.

    04:22 The glossopharyngeal nerve is going to carry taste information from the posterior one-third of the tongue.

    04:30 And the vagus nerve is going to be responsible for carrying taste information from taste buds located on the epiglottis and in the throat.

    04:40 The nerve impulses propagated by these cranial nerves go to the gustatory nucleus of the medulla oblongata.

    04:49 From there, some impulses can go to the limbic system in the hypothalamus and lead to our emotional response to certain taste and some go to the thalamus.

    05:02 From the thalamus, they go to the primary gustatory area of the cerebral cortex and allows us to perceive and discriminate different tastes.

    About the Lecture

    The lecture Gustation: Sense of Taste (Nursing) by Jasmine Clark, PhD is from the course Special Senses – Physiology (Nursing).

    Included Quiz Questions

    1. Taste
    2. Hearing
    3. Equilibrium
    4. Smell
    1. Gustatory receptor cells
    2. Supporting cells
    3. Olfactory cells
    4. Basal cells
    1. Papillae
    2. Popliteal
    3. Pineal
    4. Pene
    1. Facial (VII), glossopharyngeal (IX), and vagus (X)
    2. Trochlear (IV), trigeminal (V), and hypoglossal (XII)
    3. Abducens (VI), glossopharyngeal (IX), and hypoglossal (XII)
    4. Spinal accessory (XI), trigeminal (V), and vagus (X)
    1. 12
    2. 120
    3. 1200
    4. 2
    5. 60
    1. Hot
    2. Sour
    3. Sweet
    4. Bitter
    5. Salty
    1. Contain tactile receptors
    2. Contain taste buds
    3. Cover the left side of the tongue only
    4. Cover the right side of the tongue only
    5. Decrease friction

    Author of lecture Gustation: Sense of Taste (Nursing)

     Jasmine Clark, PhD

    Jasmine Clark, PhD

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