So now if we look at the blood supply to the
foot, we can see we’ve got the dorsum of
the foot where we’ve got the direct continuation
of the anterior tibial to become the dorsalis
pedis artery giving rise to numerous branches.
Here, we’ve got two dissections. We saw
them when we looked at the sole of the foot.
Branch is coming from the posterior tibial
onto the sole following the lateral and medial
plantar nerves. If we look at the dorsum of
the foot, the anterior tibial artery enters
deep to extensor retinaculum and it becomes
the dorsalis pedis. We can see as it passes
through the dorsum of the foot, it gives rise
to the lateral and to the medial tarsal arteries
and these supply the tarsals. It then continues
over the dorsum of the foot and it gives rise
to the arcuate artery. And this occurs just
proximal to the base of the first metatarsal.
The arcuate artery emerges. It then carries
on distally and it eventually bifurcates into
the deep plantar artery which goes deep down
into the sole of the foot, and the first dorsal
metatarsal artery which we can see here.
The arcuate artery is going to run laterally across
the dorsum of the foot, and it may well form
an important anastomosis with the lateral
tarsal artery coming here. So we have a nice
little network of blood supply on the dorsum
of the foot. But let’s concentrate on this
deep plantar artery passing down in between
the two metatarsals. We can also see the same
happens here coming off the arcuate artery, branches
going down in between the other metatarsals.
So the second, third, and fourth metatarsal
arteries emerge from the arcuate artery and
give off digital branches. These digital branches
go on to supply the toes. We can see them,
digital branches, coming forward to supply
the toes, these dorsal digital arteries.
The deep plantar artery passes between the heads
of the first dorsal interosseous muscle and
it forms the deep plantar arch by anasotomosing
with the lateral plantar artery. So the posterior
tibial artery, it divides into the lateral
and medial plantar arteries deep to the flexor
retinaculum as a direct continuation of the
posterior tibial. So we can see it here, posterior
tibial then bifurcating into the medial and
to the lateral. The medial plantar is the
smaller of the two and supplies muscles associated
with the big toe, and also the skin on the
medial surface. It gives off some digital
branches as well. The lateral plantar though
is much more substantial. It’s the bigger
of the two. It passes between the first and
second layers of muscles, and it gives rise
to the deep plantar arch at the base of the
fifth metatarsal. Here, we can see we’ve got
the lateral plantar artery, and then it’s
running around and we can see its giving rise
to the deep plantar arch. It’s giving rise
to palmar metatarsal arteries, which we can see
here. And these gives rise to plantar digital
arteries that are running towards the digits. But
medially, this deep plantar arch anastomosis
with the deep plantar artery of dorsalis pedis.
So dorsalis pedis gives rise to the deep plantar
artery, and that unites with the lateral plantar
artery to form the deep plantar arch.
And this is running along the sole of the foot.
So in this lecture, we’ve looked at the
general overview of the blood supply to the
lower limb. We’ve looked at the femoral artery.
Now it principally supplies the anterior thigh.
We’ve looked at the profunda femoris
that supplies the posterior thigh, the obturator
artery supplying the medial aspect of the thigh.
And then we looked at the gluteal arteries,
superior and inferior, and how the inferior
gluteal can form the cruciate anastomosis
with contributions from the profunda femoris.
We then looked at the popliteal artery and
the genicular arteries to supply the knee.
We looked at tibial arteries, both anterior and
posterior, and then plantar arteries which
supply the sole of the foot, the dorsalis
pedis which supplies the dorsum of the foot
and the formation of the deep plantar arch.