stabilize the knee joint on the lateral aspect.
Now, I want to talk about the femoral triangle.
This is an important region that contains
primarily the femoral nerve, the femoral artery,
and the femoral vein. We can see that it’s
a triangle and it’s positioned approximately
here. We’ve got borders from the adductor
longus muscle, from the sartorius muscle,
and from the inguinal ligament. The roof of it
is covered by the fascia lata. And importantly,
we have the saphenous opening which allows
the great saphenous vein to pass in.
So the femoral triangle is an important subfascial
space located in the upper thigh. The boundaries
of it, we have superiorly and we have the
base of this triangle, and that’s going
to be the inguinal ligament, which we can
see here. We then taper down into this apex.
Laterally, we have sartorius. So the lateral
boundary of the femoral triangle is the medial
border of sartorius. The medial boundary of
the femoral triangle is going to be the lateral
boundary of adductor longus. So here we have
this medial boundary, we have this lateral
boundary, and we have this superior boundary.
And that forms this triangle that is known
as the femoral triangle. The floor of the
femoral triangle is formed by two muscles
- iliopsoas and pectineus. Laterally, we find
iliopsoas. Medially, we find pectineus.
And these are the boundaries and the floor of the
femoral triangle. Within the femoral triangle,
we have a number of structures. We have the
femoral nerve, the femoral artery, and the
femoral vein. Importantly, the roof is formed
by the fascia lata. And here, we can see the
femoral vein, and we see an opening in the
fascia lata here. And this fascia lata, this
opening is known as the saphenous opening, and
this is how the medially positioned great
saphenous vein can pass into the femoral vein.
So we got this opening here. We can see the
contents of the femoral triangle include from
lateral to medial. We have the femoral nerve.
We have the femoral artery. We have the femoral
vein. And then not included here, we have
the deep inguinal lymph nodes. So we have
nerve, artery, vein, inguinal lymph nodes
from lateral to medial within the femoral
triangle. This femoral triangle receives the
femoral artery and the vein and the femoral
nerve, which are passed from the abdomen,
and they enter into the lower limb via the
retro-inguinal space. The retro-inguinal space
is a passage that connects the trunk with the
lower limb. We can see that the retro-inguinal
space lies behind the inguinal ligament. So
we can see the inguinal ligament here.
It’s running from the anterior superior iliac
spine all the way down to the pubic tubercle.
And we can see it divides the retro-inguinal space
or the retro-inguinal space is divided into
two compartments - a lateral compartment which
we can see here, and that contains iliopsoas
and the femoral nerve passing through. So
we can see this iliopsoas and the femoral
nerve passing through. Here, separating the
two compartments is the iliopectineal arch,
and we can see that running down separating
this lateral compartment into this medial
compartment. The medial compartment has the
femoral artery, the femoral vein, and the
lymphatics passing through, and we can see
those here. And this is all occupied within
the retro-inguinal space. It’s how these
structures pass from the trunk into the lower
limb. Finally, I just want to talk about the
adductor canal. The adductor canal is a passageway