Rational Choice Theory is another one.
And with this one it’s which is also
known as Rational Action Theory.
The basic premise that the aggregate social
behavior results from the behavior of individuals.
Each of whom is making
their own decisions.
So everyday we’re forced to make choices.
And our individual choices
collectively will shape the
overall social experiment.
So individual has preferences among the
available choices that allow them to state
which options they prefer.
Simple things like, which clothes you decide
to wear. What car you’re going to drive?
the school where you’re going to attend to,
the group of individuals you want to interact with.
Collectively that ends up
shaping our society.
Here’s some processes that we need
to consider for Rational Choice Theory.
So in the Complete sense we
have A is better than B.
And the Transistive portion
we have A is better than C.
So A is better than B, B is better than C.
So as result A will be better than C.
Now, in Rational Choice Theory,
when we’re looking at a Concept of
Interdependence or Irrelevant Alternatives,
this is the assumption that
if a new option becomes available so option X,
that it will not change the order
that we’ve already laid out
in rational choice.
Okay so all of a sudden if a new comes in
it doesn’t mean that it’s going to be
better than the A versus… A is
better than B is better than C.
And now we all of a sudden have X, that
doesn’t mean that C is now better than A.
It fits within our
previously existing models.
So in Rational Choice Theory,
the Exchange Rational choice says,
that if X is introduce it doesn’t change
the previously stated that A is better B
is better than C. that maintains.
'Cause if you look at our last box here
we will be introduced X into the box.
It still hasn’t change the fact
that A is still better B. And B
is still better than C, okay?
Individuals will choose the action or
outcome that provide the maximum net benefits.
So they’re going to choose on
an individual basis what they feel
will give them the best win, okay.
And society is therefore a construct
of a sum of these individuals’ choices.
And everybody’s choices make up our society.
And if you’re choosing the best choice for
you that what’s going to shape our society.
Okay now with Exchange Choice Theory
we have that social change and stability
is a process of negotiated
exchanges between parties.
So social exchanges theory states
that the human relationships are formed
by the use of a subjective cost-benefit
analysis and the comparison of alternatives.
So it’s a fancy way of using, what are my
option here? And I’m going to figure out
the cost and benefits of each
and make my choice.
And in that comparison, we’re using
choice to shape what’s around us.
So Social Exchange models assume that rewards
and costs drive relationship decisions.
So cost are the elements of life.
They have negative value to a person.
For example, money, time and effort. And the
rewards are the elements of a relationship
that have positive values.
So acceptance, support and affection.
So you take those things together and
you do the math. And that’s how you decide,
What is the ideal choice
in this Exchange Choice model?
So worth over outcome equals,
what are the rewards minus the cost.
And that will allow us to understand,
what is the worth of this exchange?
What is the outcome here? And you always
want to choose when the worth is high.
And the last one we’ll going to cover here
in terms of theoretical approaches to examine
socialism is the Feminist Theory.
So this began in the 70’s and it
examines the inequality against women
in various areas including social
class, politics and education.
So aspects that shape this theory
include gender differences.
and we’ve covered a lot of this kind
of concepts in some of the other modules.
And so we going to innervate
this together here.
These are socially created norms
and expectations that are passed down.
And this have been around for so long
because they continues to propagate.
The quality associated with femininity
differ from that from masculinity.
And you’ve assigned different gender
roles. So that gender inequality
includes things like unequal
division of labor, right.
So men tend to do a certain
amount of work.
Men tend to do… sorry. Women tend
to do a different amount or work.
and those are considered equal.
There's task and roles within the
family domain versus the public domain.
So your job as a woman is this.
And that’s where you belong versus
in the public space you
have a different role.
So at home you might be powerful. And that
you’re busy, and you’re doing work
and you’re the mom.
But outside the doors the man is the one
who has the face as the face of the family.
Gender Oppression and Structural Oppression.
Now, Gender Oppression is when men have
power and they use this to dominate,
control or abuse woman.
And the disparity in power may be link
to earlier roles of men versus women
in the workplace versus home.
So a 100 years ago, 50 years ago, the way
society was set up is completely different
than it is today yet some still cling on
to that. And so that disparity that we see
has lot of times linked to this
outdated sociological thinking.
Women’s inequality is associated with
capitalism, racism and patriarchy.
So we’re saying that a lot of the drivers
behind why this oppression is continuing
is that in the world of capitalism,
it’s still where money is mighty.
And it’s all about the control and power.
And a lot of the drivers that we talk about.
And this tend to be dominated by men.
And so they will like to maintain that.
And so by using this oppression and racism
They are able to maintain
that sense of power.
Collectively speaking we can see that
there's a cultural change in society
is shifting away from this
but it still does exist.