Cancer epidemiology is important for us.
We will take a look at incidence first
and we will take a look at the two genders.
Males and females. Let's begin.
The most common incident in a male, prostate
cancer would be number 1.
In a female, it would be breast. Thank goodness we
have proper screaning methods in place for both
prostate and breast. Therefore, our next topic
after incidence will be mortality.
Prostate cancer is not the number 1
killer of cancer in a male.
Breast cancer is not the number one killer from cancer
in females because of aggresive screaning methods
primarily education, mammography. Number 2 for both
males and females. What's incidence mean to you?
Discovery. Not death, that's not my topic. It's
incidence. Colorectal cancer in both men and women
comes in at number 3. Well, our next topic is mortality.
Mortality is death from the cancer.
Lung goes up to number 1 unfortunately in both men and
women. Number 2, still high though, prostate in a male.
Death from a cancer in female would be breast. And number 3,
for individual, colorectal cancer, males and females.
Sometimes you will read research papers and such in which
statistically they will tell you that colorectal cancer
is number 2 in terms of death from a cancer. And usually
they will be taking males and females combined,
which then raises it to number 2 for obvious reasons. The
topic on this slide, moving in a direction of epidemiology.
Here we will be specific for gynecologic cancers. So, obviously
in a female. And what's going on with her pelvic region.
Begin with the incidence here once again, endometrial,
ovarian and cervical. Now with incidence, endometrial
your patient most likely here is going to be a female
post-menopausal, and from cervical os you notice that
there is bleeding. And as soon as that occurs,
you as a clinician will be educated
and to know that you need to be aggresive and find
out what exactly is causing this bleeding?
Is it endometrial cancer? Ovarian. Ovarian cancer begins
in a female at the tender age of approximately 42-45.
At that point, manageable. And one would think if the patient
came in at that age that you should be able to eradicate it.
The problem is, we shall see. The median age of
presentation for ovarian cancer in the US is 61.
That is approximately 20 years of an active
cancer that remains within this female.
And what's it result of? Well, as we move
over to the mortality section here,
you will notice that the ovarian cancer is
going to be a major cause of death.
Then we have cervical. Cervical cancer, incidence wise,
here once again. Developed country, not so much.
Proper screaning methods. You've heard of pap-smears.
So therefore this will then identify and has pretty much
drop cervical quite a bit. However, in a
developing country, not so much.
So if your patient is coming from a developing country, then
you are highly suspicious of a cervical type of cancer
if your patient is bleeding, from the
cervical os, in worst case scenario.
When we do female reproductive pathology we'll talk
about how the lateral invasion of these cancers,
may then kill the patient by developing a
post-renal failure type of issue.
If you know what I am talking about, fantastic. If not,
that's okay, all I want to do is plant the seed.
On the side of mortality, ovarian cancer, incredibly high.
The reason for that is once again the median age is
approximately 60 something. Approximately
20 years of an active cancer.
Mortality, endometrial cancer in developed country.
Cervical cancer, you should be thinking about HPV
high risk strains, HPV 16, HPV 81, HPV 31, HPV 33.
Developing countries cervical cancer very common.
Developed country, not soo much, including our
vaccination called gardasil.
And at some point I will tell you why I actually
separated out 'gard' against the 'asil'.