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Epidemiology of Cancer – Neoplasia

by Carlo Raj, MD
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    00:02 Cancer epidemiology is important for us. We will take a look at incidence first and we will take a look at the two genders. Males and females. Let's begin.

    00:13 The most common incident in a male, prostate cancer would be number 1.

    00:17 In a female, it would be breast. Thank goodness we have proper screaning methods in place for both prostate and breast. Therefore, our next topic after incidence will be mortality.

    00:27 Prostate cancer is not the number 1 killer of cancer in a male.

    00:31 Breast cancer is not the number one killer from cancer in females because of aggresive screaning methods primarily education, mammography. Number 2 for both males and females. What's incidence mean to you? Discovery. Not death, that's not my topic. It's incidence. Colorectal cancer in both men and women comes in at number 3. Well, our next topic is mortality. Mortality is death from the cancer.

    01:00 Lung goes up to number 1 unfortunately in both men and women. Number 2, still high though, prostate in a male.

    01:09 Death from a cancer in female would be breast. And number 3, for individual, colorectal cancer, males and females.

    01:18 Sometimes you will read research papers and such in which statistically they will tell you that colorectal cancer is number 2 in terms of death from a cancer. And usually they will be taking males and females combined, which then raises it to number 2 for obvious reasons. The topic on this slide, moving in a direction of epidemiology.

    01:44 Here we will be specific for gynecologic cancers. So, obviously in a female. And what's going on with her pelvic region.

    01:52 Begin with the incidence here once again, endometrial, ovarian and cervical. Now with incidence, endometrial your patient most likely here is going to be a female post-menopausal, and from cervical os you notice that there is bleeding. And as soon as that occurs, you as a clinician will be educated and to know that you need to be aggresive and find out what exactly is causing this bleeding? Is it endometrial cancer? Ovarian. Ovarian cancer begins in a female at the tender age of approximately 42-45.

    02:29 At that point, manageable. And one would think if the patient came in at that age that you should be able to eradicate it.

    02:38 The problem is, we shall see. The median age of presentation for ovarian cancer in the US is 61.

    02:44 That is approximately 20 years of an active cancer that remains within this female.

    02:49 And what's it result of? Well, as we move over to the mortality section here, you will notice that the ovarian cancer is going to be a major cause of death.

    03:00 Then we have cervical. Cervical cancer, incidence wise, here once again. Developed country, not so much.

    03:09 Proper screaning methods. You've heard of pap-smears. So therefore this will then identify and has pretty much drop cervical quite a bit. However, in a developing country, not so much.

    03:21 So if your patient is coming from a developing country, then you are highly suspicious of a cervical type of cancer if your patient is bleeding, from the cervical os, in worst case scenario.

    03:36 When we do female reproductive pathology we'll talk about how the lateral invasion of these cancers, may then kill the patient by developing a post-renal failure type of issue.

    03:48 If you know what I am talking about, fantastic. If not, that's okay, all I want to do is plant the seed.

    03:53 On the side of mortality, ovarian cancer, incredibly high. The reason for that is once again the median age is approximately 60 something. Approximately 20 years of an active cancer.

    04:07 Mortality, endometrial cancer in developed country. Cervical cancer, you should be thinking about HPV high risk strains, HPV 16, HPV 81, HPV 31, HPV 33. Developing countries cervical cancer very common.

    04:20 Developed country, not soo much, including our vaccination called gardasil.

    04:28 And at some point I will tell you why I actually separated out 'gard' against the 'asil'.


    About the Lecture

    The lecture Epidemiology of Cancer – Neoplasia by Carlo Raj, MD is from the course Cellular Pathology: Basic Principles.


    Included Quiz Questions

    1. Lung
    2. Breast
    3. Colorectal
    4. Liver
    5. Skin
    1. Ovarian
    2. Endometrial
    3. Cervical
    4. Vaginal
    5. Uterine
    1. Cervical
    2. Ovarian
    3. Endometrial
    4. Breast
    5. Colorectal

    Author of lecture Epidemiology of Cancer – Neoplasia

     Carlo Raj, MD

    Carlo Raj, MD


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