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Endoplasmic Reticulum and Golgi Apparatus

by Georgina Cornwall, PhD
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    00:00 Closer look at each of the components of this endomembrane system, endomembrane transport system.

    00:06 The first piece recall is the endoplasmic reticulum. I've always loved that word.

    00:11 It has two components. We've got the smooth and the rough endoplasmic reticulum.

    00:19 The rough endoplasmic reticulum is rough because it has ribosomes on it.

    00:24 Because it has ribosomes on it, we know it's associated with the manufature of proteins and these are manufacturing proteins to go. The other component is the smooth endoplasmic reticulum.

    00:37 And the smooth endoplasmic reticulum has a little bit different of a function.

    00:42 It can produce lots of membrane because it is made of phospholipids. Recall, all of these endomembrane system is phospholipid bilayer.

    00:51 A single layer now. But phospholipid bilayer nonetheless.

    00:55 And so the smooth endoplasmic reticulum can produce a lot of itself and it's actually also involved in detoxification.

    01:04 So for example, a liver cell would have a lot of smooth endoplasmic reticulum because it's involved in detoxification.

    01:12 You can actually see after a big night on the town, or perhaps you've had one or too many cocktails, the liver cells will produce extra endoplasmic reticulum. And on the micrograph you can see that, and we call that fatty liver.

    01:28 So extra alcohol consumption, extra detoxification necessary, lots more endoplasmic reticulum.

    01:35 So moving on from there, we see the Golgi apparatus is the next step in the game.

    01:42 We said this is the shipping center. Again it has a cis face and a trans face The cis face is the arrival side, that's where you are dropping off your packages that you've just made in your production center.

    01:56 We drop off the packages on one side, and they are taken in by endocytosis, the materials are pulled into the Golgi apparatus.

    02:06 And then they are repackaged and labelled and addressed and put in the correct vans to be sent out on the trans face.

    02:15 I do remember those because trans is about transport, transporting away.

    02:19 And cis, well, that's arrival, because it's not transport.

    02:23 And then we end up having our vesicle, which is our little van. Van, vesicles, going all the way to the external cell membrane and we will drop off the contents of the cell on the external cell membrane.


    About the Lecture

    The lecture Endoplasmic Reticulum and Golgi Apparatus by Georgina Cornwall, PhD is from the course Cellular Structure.


    Included Quiz Questions

    1. It is involved in the manufacture and export of proteins
    2. It is involved in manufacture of phospholipid bilayer
    3. It is composed of a phospholipid bilayer
    4. It has a cis and trans face
    5. It is analagous to a shipping and packaging operation
    1. The smooth endoplasmic reticulum of pancreatic secretory cells helps in the synthesis of digestive enzymes
    2. A rough endoplasmic reticulum has a rough surface due to the presence of ribosomes, but smooth endoplasmic reticulum lacks them
    3. Due to the abundance of smooth endoplasmic reticulum, the hepatocytes can detoxify and inactivate toxins
    4. SER is capable of synthesizing membranes due to the presence of high contents of phospholipids
    5. RER is the main manufacturing center for the secretory proteins such as enzymes, hormones and so forth
    1. It receives proteins from ER, modifies and sorts them, and finally packs them to dispatch them to their final destinations
    2. It receives mRNA from the nucleus, modifies and finally packs them to dispatch them to the ribosomes
    3. It helps in the assembly of fully functional protein synthesis machinery around the mature mRNA molecule
    4. It receives tRNA from the nucleus and combines them with ribosomes to start the translational process
    5. It receives rRNA from the nucleus and combines them with proteins to create a fully functional ribosome

    Author of lecture Endoplasmic Reticulum and Golgi Apparatus

     Georgina Cornwall, PhD

    Georgina Cornwall, PhD


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