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Endocrine Pancreas and Control of Insulin – Endocrine Pancreatic Hormones

by Carlo Raj, MD
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    In order for us to truly understand endocrine pancreatic pathology, it is imperative that we have a good understanding of pancreatic function and hormones. The endocrine pancreas itself, we have Islet cells and our focus in this entire section is going to be dealing with insulin and its effects on various organs throughout the entire body. The picture here is showing you the pancreas and beta Islet cell. We do something called immunohistochemistry in which it then identifies the insulin within the beta Islet cell. On this table, a brief review of various hormones that are important for you to know from the pancreas. The Alpha cells, measly 10 percent, but, my goodness, responsible for releasing an important hormone called Glucagon. In pharmacology, you have heard of some of these GLP-1 analogues, things that you want to keep in mind. Dorsally derived, embryologically anterior head, body and tail. Beta cells comprise majority of your Islet cells at 70-80 percent, responsible for releasing insulin and every time there is insulin being released, do not forget endogenously, from your beta Islet cell, you are going to release your C peptides. The D cells, 5 percent, release Somatostatin. There is something called F cells, Pancreatic polypeptide, PP. Let’s go to talk about that insulin. Whenever-Whenever it is being produced in your beta Islet cells, it goes through the process of preproinsulin, proinsulin and insulin and you notice here at the bottom, a C peptide and that C peptide to you means that every time insulin is being churned out of a beta Islet cell into a circulation. It is also along with it releasing C peptide. The measuring of C peptide came to use for clinically to distinguish between that insulin which is being produced endogenously, example Insulinoma, versus that type of insulin...

    About the Lecture

    The lecture Endocrine Pancreas and Control of Insulin – Endocrine Pancreatic Hormones by Carlo Raj, MD is from the course Pancreatic Disease & Diabetes.


    Included Quiz Questions

    1. Delta cells
    2. Alpha cells
    3. Beta cells
    4. PP cells
    5. F cells
    1. C-peptide
    2. Glucagon
    3. Proinsulin
    4. Somatostatin
    5. Fasting serum glucose
    1. Opening of Ca2+ channels
    2. Glucose oxidized to ADP
    3. Efflux of K+
    4. Opening of K+ channels
    5. GLUT 4 receptors bind to glucose
    1. Closing the K+ channels in a beta cell
    2. Preventing depolarization in a beta cell
    3. Preventing release of glucagon from alpha cells
    4. Closing of Ca2+ channels in beta cells
    5. Decreasing sensitivity of GLUT 2 receptors

    Author of lecture Endocrine Pancreas and Control of Insulin – Endocrine Pancreatic Hormones

     Carlo Raj, MD

    Carlo Raj, MD


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