Now, let’s take a look at identity and look at how
some of the interactions you have will shape that identity.
Previous information that is consistent
with one’s self-concept is easy to remember.
If you say, “I’m funny and I’m intelligent.”
Then you’re going to remember
situations and experiences that aligned
with that model of yourself.
You are going to remember all the funny things
that have happened to you overtime.
You are going to remember
how you’ve accomplish certain things
that make you and help shape you to be intelligent.
So these things will be in a forefront
but you might forget the time that
you didn’t do so well because it does not
align with your self-concept.
So if you think you’re really funny and intelligent,
you’re going to kind of disregard
some of the experiences where maybe
your jokes bummed or you fail the test.
And people make fun of you.
Those kind of get push to side
and you remember the things
that aligned very nicely with your self-concept.
The new information that is consistent with
your self-concept and self-schemata
are also easier to incorporate.
So if new things are coming in,
I did really well at this,
and that’s going to align nicely with the fact that
“Oh I am quite smart. And I did really well on this task.”
that you’re going to remember that’s going to be easy
to integrate into your self-schemata
or self-concept of yourself because you’ve said,
that your smarter, you believe that your smart.
Now, the opposite holds true is if other things happen
where they don’t align with yourself,
you tend to modulate that.
So there's this phenomenon called
the Self-reference effect.
And that’s the tendency to better remember
information relevant to ourselves.
And if something doesn’t aligned with yourself,
the self-reference effect would say that,
that’s something your kind of push to side.
So say for example, you are preparing for this MCAT,
you write the MCAT, and you bummed.
Now, it’s not going to happen to you.
But in case it will happen to somebody
you know they might say,
“Well, their self-schemata…
Their sorry, their self-concept of themselves
is that they are very bright.
And that they are going to do well
'cause they’re intelligent.
But then when they wrote the exam,
they did not do well.
So how do they justify that?
How do they explain that?
'cause that does not align very nicely
with their self-concept of themselves.
So they say, “Why I fail the MCAT?
Because I was tired or the exam was really unfair.
it was biased towards people like myself.
And that’s why I failed.”
So what they’re doing there is what has happened
does not aligned with themselves.
And so based on the self-reference effect,
it does not align then move it aside.
As opposed to, if they did amazing on the test,
they are going to remember it
and they going to say,
“Oh I did amazing because I’m really, really smart.”
It aligns quite nicely.
Let’s get a little bit more into the self-concepts.
They can have the direct impact on how
an individual actually interacts
with their environment and their surroundings.
So if you believe that you are bright and smart
and you have a more optimistic view of yourself.
So we say you have a positive self-concept.
I’m brighter, I’m smart, I’m funny
all of these positive attributes
you have an overall more positive view
of yourself that’s a good thing
and that’s going to lead to better outcomes.
As opposed to, if you have a negative
self-concept of yourself and you saying,
“I’m really not that smart. And I’m not that athletic.”
And you end being sort of unhappy with yourself.
If you were to say, “Do you feel you have
a positive self-concept or negative self-concept?”
If you follow the negative side,
they feel that like they are failures.
And they end up generally speaking being
quite, unhappy, or dissatisfied with themselves.
Therefore, their outlook on life,
and their outlook on the things are going
to happen experiences that are coming
will be essentially fairly negative, okay.
So let’s take a look how it impacts your identity.
Carl Rogers who was the founder of
Humanistic Approach to Psychology
felt a personality is composed of
two different types of self.
And we used that term before of different schemata
which represent as self.
And the schemata is just a composite of
what you feel, you look like in that scenario.
There is two types here:
There is ideal self and real self.
or ideal self is who I ought to be.
So it’s composed of different life experiences.
What the society expects from you?
Who your role models?
These is your ideal self.
So if you could draw on
a piece of paper or mapped out,
“I really want to be the best guy possible.
I want to be super smart. I want to be athletic.”
And based on my role models,
I look up to I don’t know Michael Jordan.
I look up to all these different scholars.
And so based on all the different attributes
to those people that I like that our role model to me,
I ought to be THAT.
That is the best Terry that I can be.
And then there's the sad reality
of this is who I actually am.
We call it the real self.
So you put those two together
and you actually going to have some overlaps.
In reality, it’s fairly rare that your
ideal self-aligns perfectly with your real self.
You know once you achieved that, you have
achieved the magical dream of being perfect,
which I’m sure most of us know we’re not.
So the difference of overlap or the ideal self is not
lining up with the real self would be the incongruity.
So the differences between
this two are known as incongruity.
And collectively speaking this is what
help shape our personality.