Cytoskeleton: Cytoplasm (Nursing)

by Jasmine Clark

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    00:01 So along with bringing things into the cell, active transport also involves bringing things out of the cell and across the cell.

    00:10 So in exocytosis, vesicles are going to fuse with the plasma membrane and spit out their contents into the extracellular fluid.

    00:19 And in transcytosis, vesicles are gonna move across the cell from one side to the other and sometimes fuse with neighbouring cells.

    00:31 So we've discussed the plasma membrane extensively, now let's switch gears and move to the inside or the internal environment of the cell.

    00:41 The inside of the cell consist of the cytoplasm and in the cytoplasm, you have the cytosol or the intracellular fluid that's found in the cell, and you have organelles which are the specialised structures that are gonna perform different functions inside of the cell.

    01:00 So before we talk about all of the different structures, let's talk about the cell skeleton also referred to as the cytoskeleton.

    01:09 The cytoskeleton are different types of filaments and tubules found throughout the cell.

    01:14 They give the cell a structural integrity or its shape And they also allow for movement of substances across the cell as sometimes they are intracellular highways and surface streets on your cell.

    01:30 So there's three main cytoskeletal elements.

    01:34 The smallest of them are the microfilaments also known as actin and the medium size is going to be your intermediate filaments and the largest of them is going to be your microtubules.

    01:47 Each of these cytoskeletal elements plays an important role in the cell.

    01:52 Your actin microfilaments are very important for maintenance of shape of the cell and they also allow for some movement of substances through the cell especially at the cell surface The intermediate filaments are usually surrounding the nucleus of the cell and help to create their nuclear lamina or the area around the cell so that the nucleus is in the right place of the cell.

    02:18 And then the microtubules which extend from near the nucleus toward the periphery of the cell is also very important for structure as well as transport of cargo throughout the cell using the vesicles in the cell so the vesicles are going to basically travel along this microtubules.

    02:41 So the microtubules extend from a specific structure known as the centrosome.

    02:47 And the centrosome is made up of two centrioles which are at 90 degrees to each other and are located just next to the nucleus.

    02:58 And so from the centrosome, these microtubules are going to grow or radiate from this area of the cell.

    03:06 This is especially important when we're talking about mitosis as the centrosomes play a central role in the production of spindle fibers in mitosis Another structure that is derived from the microtubules of the cell are the cilia and the flagella.

    03:27 These both involve movement, either movement of particles or movement of the cell themselves.

    03:34 For example, in the respiratory system, you have cilia that allow you to cough up substances that you don't want getting down into the lower respiratory area of your body.

    03:46 And when you think of flagella, think of sperm and their ability to swim toward an oocyte in order for reproduction to occur.

    03:56 So the cilia and the flagella in our bodies are going to move in different ways.

    04:02 The flagella are usually going to move in a propeller-like or a round motion whereas the cilia in our body are going to beat back and forth so the analogy that I like to use is a boat.

    04:14 If you have the opportunity to have a motorboat, the propeller on the back of the boat is gonna propel you forward whereas if for whatever reason your motor doesn't work, you always can use the oars and move back and forth in order to get where you're going.

    About the Lecture

    The lecture Cytoskeleton: Cytoplasm (Nursing) by Jasmine Clark is from the course Cell Structure of the Human Body – Physiology (Nursing).

    Included Quiz Questions

    1. Cytosol
    2. Organelles
    3. Cellular membrane
    4. Nucleus
    1. Intermediate filaments
    2. Microfilaments
    3. Macrotubules
    4. Microtubules

    Author of lecture Cytoskeleton: Cytoplasm (Nursing)

     Jasmine Clark

    Jasmine Clark

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