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Cerebral Palsy, Mental Retardation and Autism

by Carlo Raj, MD
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    00:01 Here we have cerebral palsy.

    00:04 It’s a static disorder of primarily motor deficits of cerebral origin.

    00:10 Seizures are a common comorbidity and developmental delay or mental retardation may be seen.

    00:17 Incidence: pretty high.

    00:19 Three per one thousand live births.

    00:23 Different types: Spastic, being the most common, hypertonic.

    00:28 You could have hypotonic flaccid.

    00:30 Ataxia, dystonic, which is athetoid, or mixed types of cerebral palsy.

    00:37 Distribution: hemiplegic, quadriplegic or diplegic, which then includes both the legs and the arms, and you have a diplegic type of gait where you have circumduction that’s taking place of the legs as the patient’s moving from one side to the other.

    00:54 Different distributions in terms of your patient with cerebral palsy.

    00:59 You pay attention to the diplegic gait, please.

    01:02 Risk factors: Prematurity, extremely common.

    01:05 Low birth weight, chorioamnionitis, infection of the placenta, prenatal virus infections, prenatal strokes, perinatal hypoxic-ischemic insult.

    01:17 All possible causes of cerebral palsy.

    01:21 Mental retardation: What does this mean to you? Below average intellectual function, usually on an IQ of less than 70.

    01:30 Below average adaptive behavior, not to be confused with developmental delay.

    01:35 The failure to reach a developmental milestone is development delay versus mental retardation, and really under DSM-5 we call this intellectual disability, don’t we? Intellectual disability.

    01:49 Continuing discussion of intellectual disability, trauma could be a possible etiology.

    01:54 Prenatal and postnatal.

    01:55 Hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy.

    01:58 TORCH organisms infection.

    02:00 Chromosomal abnormalities such as Down’s syndrome or Fragile X.

    02:04 Metabolic disorders such as cretinism or accumulation of what’s known as your ganglioside or GM2, referring to Tay-Sachs disease.

    02:13 Toxins: fetal alcohol syndrome, unfortunately, being one of the most common causes of acquired intellectual disability in the U.S.

    02:22 And we have perinatal hypoxic ischemic insult.

    02:25 All possible causes of intellectual disability.

    02:30 Autism: Pervasive development disorder.

    02:34 Abnormal language: echolalia, repetitive, stereotyped speech.

    02:40 Poor social skills, lack of attachment.

    02:43 Behavioral abnormalities: restricted range of behavior, and repetitive and stereotypical type of behavior.

    02:49 Autism is an entire spectrum, isn’t it? Under autism, a part of the spectrum that you want to know here, known as Asperger’s disorder.

    03:01 Social isolation, very eccentric, but obsessive behavior.

    03:06 Normal intelligence and language could be, will be – Well, any type of autism nowadays is a lot of behavioral therapy, isn’t there? And so therefore, in terms of the potential, well, case by case and really we’re not quite sure as to what is effective or what’s not, but here specifically, please, with Asperger’s normal intelligence is important, but their social isolation and obsessive behavior is important for you to then recognize.


    About the Lecture

    The lecture Cerebral Palsy, Mental Retardation and Autism by Carlo Raj, MD is from the course Pediatric Neuropathology. It contains the following chapters:

    • Cerebral Palsy
    • Mental Retardation
    • Autism

    Included Quiz Questions

    1. Preterm birth
    2. Polyhydramnios
    3. Oligohydramnios
    4. Eclampsia
    5. Pre Eclampsia
    1. GM2 Ganglioside
    2. Iron
    3. Copper
    4. Glycogen
    5. Uric acid
    1. Asperger’s disorder
    2. Cerebral palsy
    3. Autism
    4. Down’s syndrome
    5. Tay Sach’s disease
    1. Fetal alcohol syndrome
    2. Cerebral palsy
    3. Autism
    4. Pre term birth
    5. Tay Sach’s disease

    Author of lecture Cerebral Palsy, Mental Retardation and Autism

     Carlo Raj, MD

    Carlo Raj, MD


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