So let's look at the categories of cancer.
You're gonna see these words in healthcare, you'll hear people
talk about them, you'll see them in patient's histories,
so I wanna talk about the categories of cancer where
we use these certain types of cells were they begin.
Examples are carcinoma, sarcoma, leukaemia, lymphoma,
multiple myeloma, melanoma and brain and spinal cord.
Now before we go on, take a minute and
think, have you ever heard these words before?
Put a star by the ones that seem familiar to you.
So let's take a look at carcinoma.
We're gonna start with this one because it's the most
common form of cancer and it comes from the epithelial cells.
Now before we go on, I recommend that you
pause the video for just a minute go back in your notes
and look at the example we use with epithelial cells.
Make sure you walk through that
again, see if the steps are clear to you.
It will really be helpful before
we go on to the next slide.
Hey, welcome back.
I hope you took the time to do that
because even if you're feeling pressed for time,
you got a test coming up or
you've got a big thing going on.
Taking the time to pause and reflect and
go back over information will really help you
grasp the next concepts even faster.
So there's four different types of epithelial cells.
Okay, so you understanding these different types of carcinomas
is important because it will help you feel like you understand
where the treatment plan is
coming from with your patients.
so since this will be most likely the type of
cancer you will see often in your practice,
I want you to know what these terms mean.
Adenocarcinoma is when the epithelial
cells that produce fluids or mucus.
So we know carcinomas begin
in the different epithelial cell types.
Adenocarcinoma starts from the
epithelial cells that produce fluids or mucus.
Okay so there's the first one.
Why this matters is because most of the breast,
colon and prostate cancers you see are adenocarcinomas.
Now those are very common forms of cancer, so
you're gonna sadly see a lot of adenocarcinomas.
Even if you're not going to work on an oncology unit, you're
gonna see these patients in different areas of the hospital.
Second one is basal cell carcinoma.
Now these are epithelial cells in
the basal layer of the epidermis.
The third one is squamous cell carcinoma, those are the
epithelial cells just beneath the outer surface of the skin.
And the fourth one, transitional cell carcinoma.
Those are the transitional epithelium cells.
Okay, let's go back through this one more time because
this is what you're going to see so much of in your practice.
We know that carcinomas start in
four different epithelial cell types.
So underline those as we go through.
Adenocarcinoma, basal cell carcinoma,
squamous cell carcinoma, transitional cell carcinoma.
You've got those in your notes.
It's really important to look at that adenocarcinoma
and try to link in your brain - breast, colon and prostate.
Okay, so now you've been introduced to the adenocarcinoma,
basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma
and transitional cell carcinoma.
Why do I keep saying those words to you?
Because repetition is what helps
really lock that information in your brain.
So if you're saying, "uggh, why does she keep saying
that?" I love it, that makes me happy as an educator.
Because the more often you hear some
things, it makes it easier for your brain to encode
and retrieve that information when you need it.
Let's talk about sarcomas.
Now I remember sarcomas because
they're formed in soft tissue and bone.
So sarcomas are soft tissue and bone
We're talking about the muscle, fat, blood
vessels and lymph vessels, okay.
So sarcoma, "s" is in soft tissue and bone.
So these are, you got some fibrous
tissues in your tendons and your ligaments
and as often the most common
cancer of the bone is osteosarcoma.
So sarcomas - soft tissue in bone.
So you have these fibrous tissues
in the tendons and ligaments too
but the most common cancer of bone is osteosarcoma.
So when you hear somebody talking about a patient having
osteosarcoma, you know that that's where it came from.
So it's one of the cancers that's
formed from the bone in soft tissues.
This is an extremely painful type of cancer.
Anytime cancer is in the bone, pain is a is a
huge problem to manage for your patients.
So the most common types of soft tissue
sarcomas: leiomyosarcomas, Kaposi sarcoma,
liposarcomas and look at this one,
Good luck with that one, that would
be one that is really difficult to say.
So we talked about the most common
bone cancer, we talked about osteosarcoma
but we talked about soft-tissue
sarcomas, we've given you five examples
including that really difficult
mouth tongue twister on the right.