Carcinoma and Sarcoma – Types of Cancer (Nursing)

by Rhonda Lawes, PhD, RN

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    00:00 So let's look at the categories of cancer.

    00:04 You're gonna see these words in healthcare, you'll hear people talk about them, you'll see them in patient's histories, so I wanna talk about the categories of cancer where we use these certain types of cells were they begin.

    00:16 Examples are carcinoma, sarcoma, leukemia, lymphoma, multiple myeloma, melanoma and brain and spinal cord.

    00:25 Now before we go on, take a minute and think, have you ever heard these words before? Put a star by the ones that seem familiar to you.

    00:39 So let's take a look at carcinoma.

    00:41 We're gonna start with this one because it's the most common form of cancer and it comes from the epithelial cells.

    00:48 Now before we go on, I recommend that you pause the video for just a minute go back in your notes and look at the example we use with epithelial cells.

    00:58 Make sure you walk through that again, see if the steps are clear to you.

    01:02 It will really be helpful before we go on to the next slide.

    01:11 Hey, welcome back.

    01:13 I hope you took the time to do that because even if you're feeling pressed for time, you got a test coming up or you've got a big thing going on.

    01:21 Taking the time to pause and reflect and go back over information will really help you grasp the next concepts even faster.

    01:32 So there's four different types of epithelial cells.

    01:36 Okay, so you understanding these different types of carcinomas is important because it will help you feel like you understand where the treatment plan is coming from with your patients.

    01:46 so since this will be most likely the type of cancer you will see often in your practice, I want you to know what these terms mean.

    01:54 Adenocarcinoma is when the epithelial cells that produce fluids or mucus.

    02:00 So we know carcinomas begin in the different epithelial cell types.

    02:05 Adenocarcinoma starts from the epithelial cells that produce fluids or mucus.

    02:11 Okay so there's the first one.

    02:13 Why this matters is because most of the breast, colon and prostate cancers you see are adenocarcinomas.

    02:22 Now those are very common forms of cancer, so you're gonna sadly see a lot of adenocarcinomas.

    02:30 Even if you're not going to work on an oncology unit, you're gonna see these patients in different areas of the hospital.

    02:39 Second one is basal cell carcinoma.

    02:42 Now these are epithelial cells in the basal layer of the epidermis.

    02:46 The third one is squamous cell carcinoma, those are the epithelial cells just beneath the outer surface of the skin.

    02:54 And the fourth one, transitional cell carcinoma.

    02:58 Those are the transitional epithelium cells.

    03:01 Okay, let's go back through this one more time because this is what you're going to see so much of in your practice.

    03:08 We know that carcinomas start in four different epithelial cell types.

    03:13 So underline those as we go through.

    03:16 Adenocarcinoma, basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, transitional cell carcinoma.

    03:23 You've got those in your notes.

    03:25 It's really important to look at that adenocarcinoma and try to link in your brain - breast, colon and prostate.

    03:31 Okay, so now you've been introduced to the adenocarcinoma, basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and transitional cell carcinoma.

    03:40 Why do I keep saying those words to you? Because repetition is what helps really lock that information in your brain.

    03:48 So if you're saying, "uggh, why does she keep saying that?" I love it, that makes me happy as an educator.

    03:54 Because the more often you hear some things, it makes it easier for your brain to encode and retrieve that information when you need it.

    04:03 Let's talk about sarcomas.

    04:06 Now I remember sarcomas because they're formed in soft tissue and bone.

    04:11 So sarcomas are soft tissue and bone We're talking about the muscle, fat, blood vessels and lymph vessels, okay.

    04:19 So sarcoma, "s" is in soft tissue and bone.

    04:25 So these are, you got some fibrous tissues in your tendons and your ligaments and as often the most common cancer of the bone is osteosarcoma.

    04:34 So sarcomas - soft tissue in bone.

    04:37 So you have these fibrous tissues in the tendons and ligaments too but the most common cancer of bone is osteosarcoma.

    04:45 So when you hear somebody talking about a patient having osteosarcoma, you know that that's where it came from.

    04:51 So it's one of the cancers that's formed from the bone in soft tissues.

    04:55 This is an extremely painful type of cancer.

    04:59 Anytime cancer is in the bone, pain is a is a huge problem to manage for your patients.

    05:04 So the most common types of soft tissue sarcomas: leiomyosarcomas, Kaposi sarcoma, liposarcomas and look at this one, dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans.

    05:19 Good luck with that one, that would be one that is really difficult to say.

    05:24 So we talked about the most common bone cancer, we talked about osteosarcoma but we talked about soft-tissue sarcomas, we've given you five examples including that really difficult mouth tongue twister on the right.

    About the Lecture

    The lecture Carcinoma and Sarcoma – Types of Cancer (Nursing) by Rhonda Lawes, PhD, RN is from the course Cancer – Med-Surg Nursing.

    Included Quiz Questions

    1. Kaposi sarcoma
    2. Malignant fibrous histiocytoma
    3. Leiomyosarcoma
    4. Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans
    5. Myeloma
    1. Adenocarcinoma
    2. Basal cell carcinoma
    3. Squamous cell carcinoma
    4. Transitional cell carcinoma
    5. Small cell carcinoma
    1. Adenocarcinoma
    2. Basal cell carcinoma
    3. Squamous cell carcinoma
    4. Transitional cell carcinoma
    5. Large cell lymphoma

    Author of lecture Carcinoma and Sarcoma – Types of Cancer (Nursing)

     Rhonda Lawes, PhD, RN

    Rhonda Lawes, PhD, RN

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