Bones and Muscles of the Thigh Region (Nursing)

by Darren Salmi, MD, MS

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    00:02 So let's look a little bit closer at that femur from an anterior point of view.

    00:08 Again, we have the head of the femur, the round part or the ball of the ball and socket joint at the hip joint followed by the neck.

    00:17 Then we had these two large bumps the greater trochanter and a slightly smaller, lesser trochanter.

    00:25 And then we have a patellar surface.

    00:27 Patellar refers to the knee specifically the kneecap or the floating bone that exists there.

    00:34 We're going to zoom in at the distal end of the femur now, and we're going to find some similar terminology that we saw in the distal humerus.

    00:42 We have these bumps on the sides, both medially and laterally called epicondyles.

    00:48 And here we can see they sit upon the condyle.

    00:51 That's what epicondyle means.

    00:53 We have a medial condyle and a lateral condyle, these two round bumps.

    01:01 Now let's start by going through the compartments and that will describe the muscles of the thigh.

    01:08 In general, the anterior compartment of the thigh is going to cause knee extension and will be innervated by something called the femoral nerve.

    01:19 The first thing we're going to talk about is the rectus femoris.

    01:24 Now rectus femoris, if you'll notice, proximately actually crosses over the hip.

    01:29 So in addition to having the action at the knee, it's also going to be a hip flexor.

    01:36 And if we remove it to look deep beyond that, we'll see a vastus intermedius.

    01:44 Medially, we'll see a vastus medialis and laterally, a vastus lateralis.

    01:50 So we've just named four muscles here.

    01:53 And this is how we get the name quadriceps for quads.

    01:59 And they all come down to this quadriceps femoris tendon.

    02:05 And of course, down here is where we have the patella, a free floating bone.

    02:10 And when we have free floating bones living within a tendon, we call those sesamoid bones.

    02:16 And it provides a great deal of added strength, that's going to have a patellar ligament that's going to go on and attached to the bones of the leg.

    02:28 If we switch over to the medial compartment, these are going to be our adductors for the most part, and be innervated by something called the obturator nerve.

    02:39 And they're going to say a lot in their names.

    02:41 So we have the adductor minimus and adductor magnus.

    02:49 There's actually a little opening here that we're going to talk about later.

    02:51 that's pretty important landmark called the adductor hiatus.

    02:55 So there's a little gap in there.

    02:57 And that's because something's going to pass through there.

    03:01 We also have adductor longus, and we also have pectineus.

    03:06 Fortunately, doesn't have adductor in its name, but it's still part of the medial compartment of the thigh.

    03:12 We have our adductor brevis.

    03:15 And we have a long slender one very graceful one called the gracilis.

    03:22 We'll swing around to look at the posterior compartment of the thigh now.

    03:26 And these generally flex the knee except for those that crossed the hip, and then those can deal with hip extension as well.

    03:34 And this is where that large sciatic nerve is going to come into play.

    03:40 We have the semitendinosus and semimembranosus more medially.

    03:46 More laterally, we have biceps femoris or femoris, and it has a long head and a short head.

    03:53 And we say biceps femoris because we said biceps brachii when we're talking about the arm.

    03:59 But very similar, just in this case, it's on the femur instead of the brachium.

    04:06 And the long head, as we mentioned is something that's going to cross over and have action beyond just the knee joint, but also act on the hip joint.

    About the Lecture

    The lecture Bones and Muscles of the Thigh Region (Nursing) by Darren Salmi, MD, MS is from the course Anatomy of the Musculoskeletal System (Nursing).

    Included Quiz Questions

    1. Lateral condyle
    2. Femoral head
    3. Femoral neck
    4. Greater trochanter
    5. Lesser trochanter
    1. Femoral nerve
    2. Tibial nerve
    3. Sciatic nerve
    4. Superior gluteal nerve
    5. Obturator nerve
    1. Adductor minimus
    2. Adductor magnus
    3. Adductor brevis
    4. Vastus lateralis
    5. Biceps femoris

    Author of lecture Bones and Muscles of the Thigh Region (Nursing)

     Darren Salmi, MD, MS

    Darren Salmi, MD, MS

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