Blue Sky, Orange Sky – Framing a Perspective in Context

by Lincoln Smith

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    00:01 Okay, let's place these perspectives of the author into the context of the arguments that they are making.

    00:07 To do this, we'll need a few tools.

    00:10 First, separate your opinions from those of the author.

    00:14 And once you've done that, put yourself into the author's shoes.

    00:18 And lastly, from those shoes apply fundamental rules of logic that need to remain constant regardless of what argument an author is making.

    00:29 Imagine with me that a car's author makes the claim that the sky is orange.

    00:34 It would be tempting to bring in your outside knowledge and state of the sky is in fact blue.

    00:42 Later in the passage, however, you might learn that the author only goes outside at sunrise or sunset.

    00:49 So for him, the sky is always orange.

    00:54 This proposition could also be elicited in a question where it might ask you what is a plausible explanation for this odd conclusion of the author.

    01:06 You're just looking at arguments and claims and a passage and asking yourself within the limited context I'm given are these cohesive with respect to each other, and also to the whole? This does touch upon another point, however, and that is that fundamental rules of logic still need to be adhered to.

    01:29 If the claim that the sky were orange, were made by someone who sells hot dogs from a stand in New York City, you would have to conclude that the person was colorblind or perhaps joking.

    01:40 The same viewpoint within a CARS passage can be expressed in different ways, depending on the author.

    01:46 In one passage of viewpoint may be presented as a neutral fact.

    01:49 Whereas in another, it could be expressed as satire or social commentary.

    01:56 Indeed, the evaluation of logic and the soundness of arguments thereof is the skill set required for your success on the CARS section.

    02:08 Up to this point, we've seen that question stems can prompt you to make connections across existing information within a passage.

    02:14 But the next card is question type we will examine will introduce new facts, ideas, and opinions formed to the passage itself.

    02:23 This question type is known as reasoning beyond the text that summarize what we've just discussed.

    02:28 Then we will move forward to this final question type.

    About the Lecture

    The lecture Blue Sky, Orange Sky – Framing a Perspective in Context by Lincoln Smith is from the course CARS Theoretical Foundations.

    Included Quiz Questions

    1. Use both the passage context and the validity of the conclusion at face value to answer the question
    2. Evaluate only the validity of the conclusion at face value
    3. Evaluating the validity of the conclusion based only on the passage context
    4. Strategically eliminating wrong answer choices and choosing the best of the remaining answers while ignoring the passage context
    1. The author is incorrect. Their opinion does not matter and only the average observer matters.
    2. The author is correct. The city is crimson.
    3. The author is conditionally correct. There must be a logical reason for them to view the city as crimson.
    4. The author is incorrect. There must be at least some portion of the city that isn't crimson.

    Author of lecture Blue Sky, Orange Sky – Framing a Perspective in Context

     Lincoln Smith

    Lincoln Smith

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