Now, we are going to get into the animal kingdom
And we’ve done this a few times
in some of this modules.
and again you might you say,
“Why we’re talking about animals?
Why am I showing a picture
of a squirrel here?”
Well again, we can understand and learn
a lot from animal models of behaviors
because we can relate them to humans.
and they present this little micro [inaudible 0:00:21,5]
that’s easy to kind of see the big picture
'cause it’s smaller than
what we encounter as humans.
This is when we described animals looking
around for food and finding food resources.
So securing food can have high energetic
cost and can influence patterns of behaviors.
We know that looking for food
actually requires a lot of energy.
The animals need to have enough
energy to be able to find the food.
and sort of this chicken in the egg
because you need the food to get energy,
where you spend a lot of energy to get the food.
But it will clearly influence the patterns
of behavior if you are in a time of
starvation or really are hungry.
That will adopt your behavior.
We know as humans even that is the case.
So when you are starving you will
do a lot of different things
that you might not normally you in order
to achieve that food walk far distances
or eat things that you might not want
to eat because you’re starving, right?
Animals employ learning behavior as well
to adapt to changing food environments.
Now, if they learned a
new way to acquire food
or if they learn that they can actually eat
other foods that they didn’t normally consume.
they’ll do that in response
to this changing environments.
And so many use observational
learning to acquire info from elders
about forging behaviors and
acceptable food items.
So how does a rat, or mouse, or
squirrel in the situation understand?
Or how should they be forging for
behavior? So... sorry forging for food.
And they learned that behavior
by employing observational learning.
This is the term that we get into
deeper in one of the other modules.
but what we’re referring to here is
watching and learning at the same time.
So you learned by observing and so they
will learn the elders in their little squad
and how they dig for nuts in a
certain way and crack that nut
and get what they need and
they employ that themselves.
Mate Choices and Mating Behavior in Animals.
So we know that mating behavior involves
the pairing of opposite sex organisms
for the purpose of reproduction
and the propagation of their genes.
So in English, animals like humans mate in
order to pass on in exchange to genetic information
And they would like to reproduce.
So mating behavior can include courtship
rituals, copulation, rearing of offspring.
these are all different mating behaviors
which as humans again we also apply.
So three common mating strategies include:
Random, which is when you really will
have sex with anybody within your species
And I think a lot of times that
applies to humans as well.
So there's no spatial genetic
or behavioral limitations.
They’ll have sex with anybody
within their species.
And that’s good in a lot of ways and that
it allows for high genetic variability
which in the world of genetics mixing in
the variability be can be a good thing.
It allows for change and when things are stagnant
that doesn’t allow for evolution or adaptation.
Now, Dissociative mating, is when an individuals
with more disparate traits mate more frequently.
So opposite attracts. So the more different
you are the greater the drive to mate.
And again, this kind of leans back on the
genetic variability. And that’s a good thing.
If you are really really different.
But in those who mate using dissociative
mating, they’re almost exclusively one
as different as possible.
And there is Assortative mating.
Non-random in which individual with
similar genotypes or phenotypes mates.
You kind of look like me and so
we connect and that makes sense versus
where you look completely different.
Those to throw animals out there.
Two animals that have very similar traits
or look very similar that’s going to work
on a squirrel, another squirrel that are very
similar or from the same type of squirrel.
same type of part of the forest
versus a squirrel and a zebra,
who that’s kind of pretty different will say
a squirrel from this part of the forest
and a squirrel from another forest
to cross a 3 or 4 cities difference
might be a little different in terms of
their actual genotypes and phenotypes.
So they might not want to do that.
Now, we’re going to get into this last
component of pairing the Game Theory.
And also looking at the altruistic and
how that affects natural selection.
So game theory is used to predict the behavior
of large complex systems or a population.
So you can kind of do that in animals
a little bit easy than in humans.
but the ideas you take what you’ve apply
what you learn with game theory in animals
and apply that to human and in our population.
So it’s used to understand
different phenomenon to test
the animals’ ability to survive and reproduce.
So you throw something at the mix,
you see how the animals respond,
and how is that allow them or
change their ability to survive.
And then in the animal world
as it is with the humans,
the ability to reproduce is
the key trade for survival.
So the better the fitness of the
animals versus the competitor,
the better the chances and the better the number
or the higher the number of potential offspring.
These are all positives for the animal.
So we can use this to explain how
altruistic behavior can actually work in
the context of natural selection in that.
Animals will do things, which
seem altruistic in nature.
meaning if they’re helping others in order
to actually help the collective group
or the further the transfer of their
genes or their reproduction.
So you see, what why did that animals
sacrifice itself? It did so because
it knows that it has mated or it has offspring.
And those offspring contain its genetic material.
So I’m actually furthering my overall
collective because my kids will survive
even though I will fight this predator
that’s going to normally eat me and my family,
I will fight the predator so that my family
can survive. And so, it looks altruistic
but it actually has underlying
drive and that’s to help
and further the genetic propagation
of that animal’s family.
And so it’s aligning with
So we’re going to go through an
example with this ground squirrel
and it talks about somebody’s components as well.
So the inclusive fitness or an organism
is identified by three factors.
One, the number of offspring that the organism
has, how it actually supports an organism
and how those offspring support others in the group.
How many kids do you have? How much kind
of support do you give those kids?
And how are those kids support
the collective or the group?
So an altruistic behavior is one that
helps ensure the success or survival
of the rest of the social group even at
the risk of that actual organism.
So the ground squirrels has a unique
situation where they live in burrows and caves,
and they have this network. And so,
they will actually stand guard
and they see a predator coming, they will
alarm the group and by doing so,
they actually alert the predator
to their presence.
And they end up having the fight the predator
a lot of times to their demise, they die.
But they’ve save the family. and so
again, they sacrifice themselves
in order to allow the rest of their squad
to survive and to continue and to propagate.
So we look at the animal kingdom
and we kind of learn from them.
And we see their behaviors and we also have
talked about all their different social behaviors
that we have and how what gets impact
and how those two those relate.