Lectures

Belmont Report

by Raywat Deonandan, PhD
(1)

Questions about the lecture
My Notes
  • Required.
Save Cancel
    Learning Material 2
    • PDF
      Slides 15 ResearchEthics Epidemiology.pdf
    • PDF
      Download Lecture Overview
    Report mistake
    Transcript

    00:00 rights and civil liberties, even if someone is threatening me." So due to the ethical breaches associated with the famous Tuskegee Syphilis Study, which if you don't know, was a study conducted by the US government on mostly black airmen and in the study they infected these individuals with syphilis without telling them. This is considered to be quite a violation of these individuals’ rights and today looked upon as one of the most egregious examples of bad ethical behavior by medical scientists.

    00:25 Due to that particular circumstance, the Belmont report was created to codify how best to protect human subjects in American ethical research or medical research. And the Belmont report had some core principles that we will see repeated several times as we talk about the pillars of ethics. The first is, we have to respect individuals. Respect is a problematic word, what does that mean? It means you appreciate their ability to make decisions for themselves.

    00:54 Beneficence has to be a foundational idea in medical ethics. Beneficence is when we try to do good. And justice, what is justice? Well justice is essentially treating people the same no matter what their background, whether it's race, whether it's gender, whether it's age, whether it's social class, there must be justice involved. Also, informed consent was brought up again. Informed consent is one of these themes that we will come back to again and again, the individual must agree to be experimented upon and that agreement must be based upon a genuine appreciation of the risks associated with the procedure.

    01:31 Speaking of risks, another core principle is the assessment of the risks. Is there an attempt or was there an attempt by the researcher to measure and to quantify and to qualify the potential risks and benefits of their experiment? And lastly how are the subjects selected? This has to do with vulnerability. Are you targeting a particular population because you think they're more likely to consent than others? That's a problem.

    01:56 One of the key criticisms of the Belmont report is that it offers a kind of one-size-fits-all recommendation, it doesn't consider that there could be differences in ethnic composition, gender and culture in the populations that you are looking at and that might help determine which of the pillars you want to focus on more. It also doesn't give any guidance on how to wait or prioritize the core principles. For example, is informed consent more important than justice? Is beneficence more important than assessing risks? We don't know.

    02:24 It offers no guidance. So that takes me to the Declaration of Helsinki, which I


    About the Lecture

    The lecture Belmont Report by Raywat Deonandan, PhD is from the course Research Ethics.


    Included Quiz Questions

    1. Tuskegee syphilis study
    2. Nazi human experimentation (WW II)
    3. Guatemala syphilis experiment
    4. Milgram experiment
    1. Participants in a research study must be autonomous agents capable of making informed decisions concerning whether to participate in research
    2. The Ethics Review Board must be autonomous agents capable of making informed decisions concerning whether to participate in research
    3. Researchers in a research study must be autonomous agents capable of making informed decisions concerning whether to participate in research
    4. All the environmental participants in a research study must be autonomous agents capable of making informed decisions concerning whether to participate in research
    5. Local community must be capable of making informed decisions concerning whether to participate in research

    Author of lecture Belmont Report

     Raywat Deonandan, PhD

    Raywat Deonandan, PhD


    Customer reviews

    (1)
    5,0 of 5 stars
    5 Stars
    5
    4 Stars
    0
    3 Stars
    0
    2 Stars
    0
    1  Star
    0