Lectures

Acute Meningitis

by Carlo Raj, MD
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    Let’s begin with acute meningitis. So what is happening here? Inflammation of the meninges, leptomeningeal, and as I told you earlier, where you will be paying attention to and serious of detail, is going to be the evaluation of the cerebrospinal fluid. That will then tell you or clue you in what’s the cause of my acute meningitis. Bacterial, fungal, viral, whatnot or could be a combination where you have meningoencephalitis. What does that mean? Well, what's adjacent to the meninges again? Of course, the brain parenchyma. So don’t memorize, just take a look. If the meninges are undergoing pathologic processes, then as is at some point in time the adjacent parenchyma of the brain which then brings into what definition? Good. Encephalitis. Both the parenchyma and the meninges undergoing pathologic changes. Acute meningitis, infectious, could be bacterial, viral. You want to keep mycobacterial separate please. Then you have spirochetal, fungal and parasitic. Granted mycobacterial and spirochetal are, in fact, the bacterial, but I need you to keep this separate. Why? Because as we go through meningitis, I need you to be able to diagnose, is my patient suffering from meningitis as tuberculosis being the cause or was it something like Lyme disease referring to Borrelia burgdorferi. Now, overall theme, what’s happening here? CNS infections. What’s my topic? Acute meningitis, inflammatory process, granted infections. Right? And I told you earlier, let's say that there is chemical injury, then what do you think that a particular organ is going to do undergoing inflammatory process, but is it purely infectious? Not really, right? So we’ll talk about this quickly, a couple of points on chemical and also neoplastic. Neoplastic, of course, is not being infectious, but if you have neoplastic, let’s say, changes taking place in the meninges. Once again, you get...

    About the Lecture

    The lecture Acute Meningitis by Carlo Raj, MD is from the course CNS Infection—Clinical Neurology. It contains the following chapters:

    • Acute Meningitis
    • Acute Bacterial Meningitis: CSF Findings

    Included Quiz Questions

    1. HSV
    2. Bacteria
    3. Fungus
    4. Rickettsial
    5. Prion
    1. There is an increase in the protein due to the phagocytic breakdown of bacterial wall and release of protein.
    2. There is a decrease in protein due to phagocytic consumption of the bacterial wall by inflammatory cells.
    3. The protein levels are normal in this patient.
    4. The protein level is increased due to secretion of proteinaceous material by the living bacteria.
    5. The protein levels in CSF can vary from being high to low.
    1. Lymphocytes
    2. Neutrophils
    3. Monocytes
    4. Basophils
    5. Eosinophils
    1. Glucose is less in acute bacterial meningitis due to consumption of it by the bacteria.
    2. Glucose level is more in CSF due to the secretion of glucose in bacterial meningitis
    3. Glucose levels vary based on a number of bacteria in CSF
    4. Glucose levels are more as the bacteria prevents the usage of glucose.
    5. Glucose levels are more because of breakage of the cells by the bacteria.
    1. Acute bacterial meningitis
    2. Normal CSF
    3. Brain abscess
    4. Fungal meningitis
    5. Viral meningitis

    Author of lecture Acute Meningitis

     Carlo Raj, MD

    Carlo Raj, MD


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