Leukemia: Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia (ALL) – White Blood Cell Pathology

by Carlo Raj, MD

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    Let’s take a look at ALL. With ALL, acute lymphoblastic leukemia is what I prefer to call it because it’s acute. You still expect to find increase in blast count in the bone marrow of greater than 20%. Next, it’s lympho. Then you have two types, pre-T/pre-B, pre-T/pre-B. Can be extramedullary. That’s important. Call this lymphoblastic lymphoma. And where it metastasized is very important, CNS and the testicles, metastasis. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia. By definition once again, acute, you’re going to find greater than 20% blasts. Remember please, this time it will be lymphoblast. Smaller than myeloblasts with large nuclei and scant basophilic cytoplasm. So cytoplasm is not going to be as abundant as what you find with myeloblast. But nonetheless, these are blasts. With ALL, quickly for us, we’ll go through tables here to compare and contrast pre-B and pre-T. Let’s begin. Thank goodness and I say only if your child develops ALL. If it’s pre-B, 80% of time, it will be this. The reason I said that this is decent is because of prognosis is excellent. In pre-T, it’s devastating. Let's walk through this just a little bit more. Pre-T, where does the T cells gets educated? Thymus, good. So now, tons of T -- Let’s say if it was T, type of ALL, Tons of T cells, the thymus is now in a child hyperplasia, hyperplasia, hyperplasia, hyperplasia. Oh no. Now what happens? In a child, it’s going to compromise the thoracic cavity. Compromise perhaps the heart or the lungs. Your child is pretty much dead. That’s because of death in pre-T. Age of onset, childhood. Adolescence, a little bit older but still childhood. Site: If it’s pre-B, take a look. Blood and bone marrow. Pre-T, mediastinal mass. What does that mean? The thymus. Keep that in mind....

    About the Lecture

    The lecture Leukemia: Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia (ALL) – White Blood Cell Pathology by Carlo Raj, MD is from the course Leukemia – White Blood Cell Pathology (WBC).

    Included Quiz Questions

    1. Testicles
    2. Skeleton
    3. Intestines
    4. Liver
    5. Kidney
    1. Precursor B acute lymphoblastic leukemia
    2. Age less than 2 years
    3. WBC >12,000
    4. Normal cytogenetics
    5. Age >11 years

    Author of lecture Leukemia: Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia (ALL) – White Blood Cell Pathology

     Carlo Raj, MD

    Carlo Raj, MD

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