The Limbic System does presents some
fairly fascinating clinical correlations
once syndrome of note here is
This syndrome is characterized as
a chronic memory disorder.
and it is caused by a vitamin B1
or thiamine deficiency.
and this is typically the result of
chronic alcohol abuse.
In Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome,
there's damage to the mammillary bodies
and the mammillary bodies
are shown in through here.
These are paired structures
and there's also damage to the
dorsomedial thalamic nucleus.
However, this is not shown
in this particular image.
Next, I want you to understand the symptoms
that may result from lesions
to the structures involved in
First, is that the individual
with kind of lesion or syndrome
they will have difficulty at
learning new information.
Secondly, they’ll have an inability to
remember recent events in their life
and because of this inability
to remember at recent events
they become prone to making up
information that they do not remember
and this is also termed
confabulate information, make it up.
Another interesting clinical correlation
that relates to the Limbic System
is Kluver-Bucy Syndrome.
This is a rare syndrome in humans
but when we understand the impact of lesions
on the components of the Limbic System,
the symptomology that results does make sense.
Kluver-Bucy Syndrome is characterized by bilateral
lesions of the amygdala and the hippocampus.
And those structures are
shaded here in the image.
So here’s your amygdala
and here’s your hippocampus.
Causes of Kluver-Bucy as syndrome could
be due to trauma or herpes encephalitis.
What are some of the symptoms for you
to understand that relate to
an individual having of this syndrome?
One symptom is they’ll have a visual
disturbance that will be visual agnosia.
They also have oral tendencies
so they will have a tendency
to put objects in their mouth.
Hypermetamorphosis is another symptom
associated with Kluver-Bucy as syndrome
because of the emotional functions
to these components the structure
to the Limbic System,
individuals with this syndrome
tend to have diminished
or muted emotional responses to a stimuli.
And as a curiosity they tend
to display hypersexuality.
Another clinical correlation to consider
and this is our last clinical correlation
is that of Alzheimer Disease.
This is going to be due to severe atrophy
of the hippocampus in this area,
accumulation of senile plaques of alpha beta
amyloid would be seen histologically.
And then we also see
histologically an accumulation of
neurofibrillary tangles of
hyper phosphorylated tau proteins.
As the disease progresses, it will involve
more global brain structures to include
the cerebral cortex, the occipital lobe
is spared in cortical atrophy.
and as you lose the cortex,
individuals with Alzheimer Disease
will display a widening of the sulci.
Alzheimer Disease is the most
common form of dementia.
It typically has a late-onset
so it does occur later in life.
However, in some cases
it may have an early-onset.
So maybe the symptoms of Alzheimer Disease
start to manifest in an individual
who is in their 40s.
And this tends to have
an accelerated course
so it occurs more rapidly than a
late-onset form of Alzheimer disease.
What are some of the symptoms for you
to understand regarding the Alzheimer Disease?
One is individuals that are affected
will have memory impairment.
This may start initially as forgetting
where items are located.
I misplaced my car keys, I misplaced my eyeglasses
and I’m having difficulty finding them.
An individual may become disoriented and lost.
And they are unable to navigate
from home to work or work to home
or something as simple as walk around
the community which they reside,
that they get in the car, they may be
traveling that great distance
not really knowing where they’re at.
They tend to have at some point
difficulty with numbers.
Another symptom associated with Alzheimer Disease
that the individual do not respond
effectively or normally with their interactions.
And lastly, individuals will
demonstrate various behavioral changes
that are most notable by family members.