Physiology Question Set 3

by Lecturio USMLE

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    About the Lecture

    The lecture Physiology Question Set 3 by Lecturio USMLE is from the course Physiology - High Yield Questions.

    Included Quiz Questions

    1. Airway remodelling
    2. Airway hyperresponsiveness
    3. Airway inflammation
    4. Airway epithelial shedding
    5. Airway smooth muscle atrophy
    1. External intercostal muscles
    2. Internal intercostal muscles
    3. Scalene muscles
    4. Sternocleidomastoid muscles
    5. Muscles of anterior abdominal wall
    1. SP-A is important for innate host defence of the lung.
    2. Pulmonary surfactant is composed of 80% of lipids and 20% of proteins.
    3. Pulmonary surfactant is secreted into alveolar lumen as tubular myelin.
    4. SP (Surfactant Protein)-A and SP-D are hydrophobic, and SP-B and SP-D are hydrophilic.
    5. SP-B is the most abundant of surfactant-associated proteins.
    1. 2,3-biphosphoglycerate (2,3-BPG) poorly binds to γ polypeptide chains in fetal hemoglobin.
    2. pH of fetal blood is more alkaline as compared to that of maternal blood which shifts the oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve to left.
    3. Reduced secretion of growth hormones in fetus reduce concentration of 2,3-biphosphoglycerate (2,3-BPG) and the P50.
    4. Oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve for fetal hemoglobin is a rectangular hyperbola.
    5. Fetal red blood cells do not produce 2,3-biphosphoglycerate (2,3-BPG).
    1. Decreased pulmonary artery pressure
    2. Increased central hypercapnic ventilatory responsiveness
    3. Increased sympathetic activity
    4. Prolonged lung-to-brain circulation time
    5. Hypoxemia
    1. Prolonged QT interval
    2. Tall peaked T-waves
    3. Prolonged PR interval
    4. Widening of QRS complex
    5. Decreased P waves
    1. Absorption of cobalamin occurs by an active process in ileum only.
    2. Cubilin, specific receptor for intrinsic factor, is also present in renal proximal tubular epithelium.
    3. After cobalamin-intrinsic factor complex enters the ileal cell, cobalamin appears in portal blood after a delay of about 6 hours.
    4. Adocobalamin is cofactor for methylmalonyl coenzyme A mutase and methylcobalamin is cofactor for methionine synthase.
    5. Cobalamin undergoes enterohepatic circulation in humans.
    1. Lysosomes of both neutrophils and macrophages contain large amounts of lipases.
    2. A single neutrophil can usually phagocytize up to 20 bacteria, while a single macrophage can phagocytize as many as 100 bacteria.
    3. A neutrophil cannot phagocytize a malarial parasite, while a macrophage can.
    4. After phagocytosis, a neutrophil usually becomes inactivated and dies, while a macrophage can survive and function for a few months.
    5. Lysosomes of both neutrophils and macrophages contain abundant proteolytic enzymes.
    1. Platelet-derived growth factor
    2. Increased renal blood flow
    3. Increased renal nerve activity
    4. Hepatocyte growth factor
    5. Insulin-like growth factor
    1. Microcytic hypochromic anemia seen in this condition responds poorly to oral iron therapy.
    2. Haemophilus influenzae is most common organism causing spontaneous bacterial peritonitis.
    3. Intrinsic renal failure is the most common type of acute renal failure.
    4. As there is increased risk of thromboembolism, prophylactic anticoagulation is indicated in all patients.
    5. Hypocalcemia is most commonly due to urinary loss of calcium.
    1. Growth hormone stimulate lipogenesis and increases omental fat mass.
    2. Growth hormone is the most abundant anterior pituitary hormone.
    3. BGhrelin can directly stimulate growth hormone release.
    4. Integrated 24-hours growth hormone secretion is higher in women than in men.
    5. Growth hormone promotes sodium, potassium, and water retention.
    1. Thyroid dermopathy and thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy are usually not present together.
    2. Lid retraction and staring appearance are not specific for thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy.
    3. Smoking increases risk of developing thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy.
    4. Clubbing in absence of thyroid dermopathy needs search for alternative etiology of clubbing.
    5. Clinical course of thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy does not follow that of the thyroid disease.
    1. G17 is the principle form of gastrin with respect to gastric acid secretion.
    2. Gastrin is a polypeptide hormone that shows both macroheterogeneity and microheterogeneity.
    3. Gastrin is inactivated primarily in liver.
    4. Gastrin stimulates growth of mucosa of stomach and of small and large intestines.
    5. Although G cells are innervated by postganglionic vagal fibers, atropine does not inhibit secretion of gastrin in response to meal.
    1. The disease occurs in people eating corn-based diets because of reduced niacin content of corn.
    2. In setting of famine, the disease occurs because of dietary deficiencies of niacin, iron, riboflavin, and pyridoxine.
    3. The disease occurs in association with carcinoid syndrome because of excessive utilization of tryptophan for serotonin synthesis
    4. The disease occurs in association with hartnup disease because of reduced intestinal absorption and increased renal loss of tryptophan.
    5. The disease occurs in association with isoniazid therapy because of reduced endogenous synthesis of niacin.
    1. Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH)
    2. α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH)
    3. Cocaine- and amphetamine-related transcript (CART)
    4. Glucagon-related peptide-1 (GRP-1)
    5. Serotonin
    1. Presence of hyperamylasemia is highly suggestive of pancreatitis even in absence of abdominal pain.
    2. Markers of inflammation such as cytokines and C-reactive protein are elevated.
    3. Catecholamines and growth hormone cause lipolysis and glucagon stimulates ketone body formation.
    4. Serum very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) is increased because of increased production and decreased clearance of VLDL.
    5. Although serum potassium level may be normal or elevated, total body store is reduced.
    1. Transfalcial herniation is characterised by displacement of cingulate gyrus under the falx and across the midline.
    2. Uncal transtentorial herniation is characterised by dilatation of the contralateral pupil due to compression of the third nerve.
    3. Uncal transtentorial herniation usually compresses anterior and middle cerebral arteries as they pass over tentorial reflections, with resultant brain infarction.
    4. Coma that follows uncal transtentorial herniation is due to compression of midbrain against the opposite tentorial edge by the displaced supramarginal gyrus.
    5. Dilated pupils and drowsiness are heralding signs of central transtentorial herniation
    1. Down-regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)
    2. Impaired cerebral autoregulation
    3. Altered permeability of blood-brain barrier by histamine and arachidonic acid
    4. Release of calcium-mediated nitric oxide
    5. Increased sympathetic activity
    1. Reduced glycogenolysis
    2. Vasodilation
    3. Reduced thermogenesis
    4. Reduced gluconeogenesis
    5. Impaired judgment
    1. Mutations in MDR3 (ABCB4) gene predisposes to cholelithiasis by increased secretion of cholesterol into bile.
    2. Immunoglobulins act as a pronucleating factor for nucleation of cholesterol monohydrate crystals.
    3. Clofibrate therapy increases risk of cholelithiasis by increasing biliary secretion of cholesterol.
    4. Gall bladder stones that develop after ileal resection are usually black pigment stones.
    5. Gall stones that develop during pregnancy may spontaneously disappear after delivery.

    Author of lecture Physiology Question Set 3

     Lecturio USMLE

    Lecturio USMLE

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