Lectures

Physiology Question Set 2

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    About the Lecture

    The lecture Physiology Question Set 2 by Lecturio USMLE is from the course Physiology - High Yield Questions.


    Included Quiz Questions

    1. The infusion of either T3 or T4 will reduce the circulating level of TSH.
    2. The lady is suffering from hypothyroidism due to a primary abnormality of the pituitary gland.
    3. The principal feedback regulator of TSH secretion is circulating T4.
    4. The biological half-life of T3 is 6 to 7 days.
    5. Her T3 or T4 concentration will be increased markedly if she is given TRH.
    1. Lower plasma calcium level and higher phosphate level along with Trousseau signs.
    2. Lower plasma calcium and phosphate level along with features of tetany.
    3. Higher plasma calcium and phosphate level along with features of osteoporosis.
    4. Higher plasma calcium level and lower phosphate level along with features of osteoporosis.
    5. Increased formation of 1, 25 dihydroxycholecalciferol resulting in increased calcium absorption from kidney and intestine.
    1. Castrated males lack estrogens obtained from peripheral conversion of testosterone and thus have delayed closure of their epiphysis.
    2. Testosterone has a negative feedback on growth hormone secretion. So lack of testosterone secretion following castration is responsible for the increased growth spurt.
    3. Absent testosterone level in blood leads to increased secretion adrenal androgens, those are responsible for increased growth of long bones.
    4. Castration is followed by a rise in FSH and LH secretion and those along with GH are responsible for the increased growth spurt.
    5. Testes secrete Inhibin which is responsible for epiphyseal closure. Lack of Inhibin in castrated males lead to late epiphyseal closure and increased growth.
    1. Salt depletion and hypovolemic shock due to lack of aldosterone secretion from adrenal.
    2. Cold intolerance due to lack of TSH and subsequent hypothyroidism.
    3. Stress intolerance due to lack of ACTH and subsequent lowered level of adrenal glucocorticoid.
    4. Secondary amenorrhea due to lack of FSH secretion and subsequent anovulation.
    5. Regression of secondary sexual characters due to deficiency of estrogen secretion from her gonads.
    1. Vitamin B12 is absorbed through the upper small intestine.
    2. Major portions of bile acids are absorbed through the lower small intestine.
    3. The majority of long chain fatty acids are absorbed through the upper small intestine.
    4. Bloating and flatulence are due to production of CO2 and H2 from carbohydrate residues in the lower small intestine and colon.
    5. Water soluble and majority of fat soluble vitamins are absorbed through jejunum.
    1. The function of Protein C and Protein S remains unaltered following warfarin ingestion.
    2. Warfarin inhibits the action of vitamin K and thus the action of clotting factor II, VII, IX and X.
    3. Factor VII is triggered by tissue thromboplastin for the initiation of the extrinsic system of clotting mechanism.
    4. The intrinsic system of coagulation cascade is initiated by activation of factor XII to factor XIIa .
    5. The sequence of activation of factors in extrinsic system is VII➝ X➝V➝II➝I
    1. The boy’s RBC is having both A and B antigen.
    2. The boy has both anti A and anti B agglutinins in plasma.
    3. A person with an AB blood group is a universal donor.
    4. Dangerous hemolytic reactions will occur due to ABO incompatibility if he is transfused with the O blood group.
    5. ABO incompatibility during blood transfusion is always life threatening needing emergency dialysis.
    1. First pregnancy is never affected as the primary antigen is of IgM type and could not cross the placenta.
    2. Chance of rhesus incompatibility is there where the mother is rhesus positive and the fetus rhesus negative.
    3. A chance of having a rhesus negative fetus is nil here as father is having a positive rhesus blood type.
    4. There is always fetal affection if immunoglobulin prophylaxis was not administered in previous pregnancy.
    5. The direct coomb test during antenatal period demonstrates the immune status of the mother.
    1. Rapid gain in weight
    2. Excessive passage of large volume of urine
    3. Excessive water drinking
    4. Increased appetite
    5. Increased frequency of urinary tract infection
    1. The parietal cells secrete hydrochloric acid and Intrinsic factor.
    2. Pepsin is secreted in its active form which initiates protein digestion.
    3. Gastrin is released from G cells, which are located in the fundus of the stomach
    4. Mucus is secreted by the glands located in the antrum.
    5. The quantity of the aspirated juice will be decreased if acetylcholine is injected.
    1. Taking proton pump inhibitor along with iron supplementation.
    2. Dietary supplementation with food containing iron
    3. Supplementation with iron tablet
    4. Taking citrus fruits along with iron supplementation
    5. Avoiding cereals containing phytic acid
    1. Acute liver failure leading to hepatic encephalopathy.
    2. Acute pancreatitis .
    3. Jaundice due to disturbed secretion of conjugated bilirubin and its regurgitation in blood.
    4. Clay colored stool due to absent secretion of bile into the intestine.
    5. Defective absorption of fat soluble vitamins.
    1. Metabolic alkalosis in peripheral tissues.
    2. Decreased venous return and fall in cardiac output.
    3. Fall in blood pressure and rise in heart rate.
    4. Generalized vasoconstriction excluding brain and heart.
    5. Fall in glomerular filtration rate.
    1. High FSH, high LH, high estrogen and low progesterone.
    2. High FSH, high LH, Low estrogen and progesterone.
    3. High FSH, low LH, high estrogen and low progesterone.
    4. Low FSH, low LH, high estrogen and progesterone.
    5. High FSH and LH and low Inhibin B.
    1. Increased libido
    2. Heat intolerance and night sweats
    3. Osteoporosis
    4. Urinary urgency ,frequency and repeated urinary tract infection
    5. Depression, insomnia and anxiety
    1. Alkalosis causes a shift of the oxygen hemoglobin dissociation curve towards right.
    2. Voluntary hyperventilation causes lowering of alveolar and arterial Pco2.
    3. Decreased Pco2 causes less formation of H+ ion and thus increase the blood pH.
    4. Lowered arterial Pco2 level is a negative stimulus for respiratory center and may cause apnea.
    5. Cerebral blood flow may be markedly reduced due to the direct constrictor effect of hypocapnia on the cerebral vessels.
    1. In euglycemic state, essentially all of the glucose is reabsorbed in the proximal tubule and thus glycosuria means straightway poor diabetic control of the person.
    2. Diabetic persons are prone to have diabetic nephropathy and appearance of glucose in this urine sample can be as a result of that.
    3. The renal threshold for glucose is 100mg/dl and above this serum level glucose cannot be reabsorbed and appear in the urine. So no conclusion regarding glycemic control can be made.
    4. Diabetic persons can have a urinary tract infection and the presence of glucose in urine here can be due to that.
    5. The lowered glomerular filtration rate can hamper the rate of glucose reabsorption even the person is in euglycemic status.
    1. Inability of the kidney to respond to the vasopressin can be a cause of diabetes insipidus.
    2. Diabetes insipidus is due to excessive secretion of the vasopressin from the posterior pituitary.
    3. The vasopressin acts on the collecting ducts of the kidney by decreasing the permeability so that water cannot be reabsorped from the ducts to the hypertonic interstitium of the renal pyramids.
    4. The stimulus for vasopressin secretion is lowered osmolality of the extracellular fluid.
    5. Urine specific gravity of this person remains high in contrast to normal individuals
    1. The fibers from each nasal hemiretina decussate in the optic chiasma.
    2. The fibers from each temporal hemiretina decussate in the geniculate body.
    3. Each temporal and nasal hemiretina are representative of temporal and nasal field of vision respectively.
    4. The tumor impinging on the chiasma will cause visual field defect characterized by binasal hemianopia.
    5. Each optic tract ends in the occipital lobe of the cerebral cortex.
    1. Hypoglycemia due to increased peripheral utilization of glucose.
    2. Poor development of muscle, skin and subcutaneous tissue due to excess protein catabolism.
    3. Osteoporosis due to increased bone resorption.
    4. Development of hypertension due to increased deoxycorticosterone and glucocorticoid secretion.
    5. Poor wound healing and formation of bruises and ecchymoses in minor injuries.

    Author of lecture Physiology Question Set 2

     Lecturio USMLE

    Lecturio USMLE


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