Lectures

Pathology Question Set 2

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    About the Lecture

    The lecture Pathology Question Set 2 by Lecturio USMLE is from the course General Pathology – Board-Style Questions.


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    1. Bradykinin and prostaglandin
    2. Serotonin and histamine
    3. Ig-G and complement C3b
    4. 5- Hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid (5-HPETE) and leukotriene A4
    5. Tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-1
    1. Deletion of the chromosome 22q11
    2. B cell maturation failure
    3. Mutation in the WAS gene
    4. Lysosomal trafficking regulator gene defect
    5. B cell development failure
    1. Metaplasia
    2. Atrophy
    3. Hypertrophy
    4. Dysplasia
    5. Hyperplasia
    1. Necrosis of mammillary bodies
    2. Neurofibrillary tangles
    3. Atrophy of globus pallidus
    4. Trinucleotide repeat disorder
    5. Hypothyroidism
    1. Antibody to double-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid
    2. Antibody to histone protein
    3. Antibody to Microsomal cellular organelle
    4. Antibody to phospholipid of cell membrane
    5. Antibody to ribonucleoprotein
    1. Transfusing leukocyte reduced blood products
    2. ABO grouping and Rh typing before transfusion
    3. Administering prophylactic epinephrine
    4. Administering prophylactic immunoglobulins
    5. Performing Coombs test before transfusion
    1. Fat embolism
    2. Spontaneous pneumothorax
    3. Pulmonary edema
    4. Cardiac tamponade
    5. Acute pneumonia
    1. Fibrillin
    2. Cystathionine synthase deficiency
    3. Spectrin
    4. Dystrophin
    5. NF1 protein
    1. 47, XY, +21
    2. 47, XY, +18
    3. 45, XO
    4. 47, XXY
    5. 47, XXX
    1. They need thymus for the maturation
    2. They have multiple-lobed nucleus
    3. They are rich in myeloperoxidase enzyme
    4. They play an important part in allergic reactions
    5. Their half-life is 24 – 48 hours
    1. Characterized by preservation of cellular shape
    2. Characteristic of brain ischemia
    3. The result of hydrolytic enzymes
    4. The result of denaturation of glucose
    5. Commonly associated with acute pancreatic necrosis
    1. Increase in cardiac cell size
    2. Increase in number of normal cardiac cells
    3. Replacement of cardiac cells into stronger red-fiber skeletal cells
    4. Disordered growth of the cardiac cells
    5. Decrease in cardiac cell size
    1. Photosensitivity
    2. Urethritis
    3. Esophageal dysmotility
    4. Xerostomia
    5. Valvular heart disease
    1. Thromboembolism
    2. Pulmonary hemorrhage
    3. Pulmonary passive congestion
    4. Pulmonary hypertension
    5. Pulmonary Ischemia
    1. Complement dependent phagocytosis
    2. IgE dependent mast cell activation
    3. Ig M dependent cell lysis
    4. Deposition of antigen antibody complexes
    5. T cell mediated antibody reactions
    1. Defective T-cell function
    2. Grossly reduced levels of B cells
    3. Selective lgA deficiency
    4. Defective isotype switching
    5. An X – linked inheritance of HLA genes
    1. Natural Killer cell-induced lysis of infected cells
    2. Eosinophil-mediated lysis of infected cells
    3. Virus-specific immunoglobulins to remove free virus
    4. Presentation of viral peptides on MHC-I of CD4+ T cells
    5. Complement-mediated lysis of infected cells
    1. Herd immunity
    2. Genetic drift
    3. Genetic shift
    4. Immune evasion
    5. Tolerance
    1. DiGeorge syndrome
    2. Adenosine deaminase (ADA) deficiency
    3. Chediak-Higashi syndrome
    4. Wiskott-Aidrich syndrome
    5. Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID)
    1. Type III, mediated by lgG antibodies
    2. Type I, mediated by IgE antibodies
    3. Type II, mediated by CD4+ T cells.
    4. Type IV, mediated by CD4+ T cells
    5. Type IV, mediated by lgG and lgM antibodies
    1. Inability to generate the microbicidal respiratory burst
    2. Inability to fuse lysosomes with phagosomes
    3. MHC Class-II deficiency
    4. Deficiency of CD40L on activated T cells
    5. Tyrosine kinase deficiency blocking B-cell maturation
    1. Immediate hypersensitivity
    2. Contact dermatitis
    3. Delayed hypersensitivity
    4. Serum sickness
    5. Type II hypersensitivity
    1. Bruton agammaglobulinemia
    2. Hereditary angioedema
    3. Chediak-Higashi syndrome
    4. Common variable immunodeficiency
    5. DiGeorge syndrome
    1. Bone marrow transplantation
    2. Broad spectrum antibiotics given periodically for life
    3. Periodic exogenous immunoglobulins administered for life
    4. Isolation to an anti-septic environment
    5. Periodic thymic hormones for life
    1. Chediak-Higashi syndrome
    2. Leukocyte adhesion deficiency – 1
    3. Common variable immunodeficiency
    4. Acquired Immunodeficiency syndrome
    5. Congenital thymic aplasia
    1. Gaucher disease type I
    2. Viral hepatitis
    3. Biliary obstruction
    4. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia
    5. Autoimmune disorder
    1. Measurement of glucocerebrosidase activity in peripheral leukocytes
    2. α1-antitripsin levels in serum
    3. Ultrasonography of the abdomen
    4. Liver biopsy
    1. Niemann-Pick disease type A
    2. Gilbert syndrome
    3. Gaucher disease
    4. Crigler – Najjar syndrome type I
    5. Primary biliary cirrhosis
    1. Glucose-6-phosphatase
    2. Glucocerebrosidase
    3. Sphingomyelinase
    4. Phenylalanine-hydroxidase
    5. α-ketoacid dehydrogenase
    1. Deficiency of Vitamin-A
    2. Vitamin B1-deficiency
    3. Congenital rubella
    4. Autoimmune neutropenia
    5. SCA – Spinocerebellar ataxia type 1
    1. PGE2
    2. LTB4
    3. Bradykinin
    4. Histamine
    5. Arachidonic acid
    1. Transmigration and chemotaxis
    2. Adhesion
    3. Rolling
    4. Margination
    5. Phagocytosis
    1. Integrin subunit
    2. Selectin
    3. Cellular adhesion molecule
    4. TNF alpha
    5. vWF
    1. Prostaglandin E2
    2. Prostaglandin I2
    3. Thromboxane A2
    4. Leukotriene D4
    5. Prostaglandin F2
    1. Nasal foreign body
    2. Bilateral maxillary sinusitis
    3. Nasal polyp
    4. Septal hematoma
    5. Nasal tumor
    1. Healing by secondary intention will occur along with deposition of large amount of granulation tissue.
    2. Healing involves abscess formation which should be drained.
    3. Healing by primary intention will occur without granulation tissue formation.
    4. Formation of granulation tissue is not affected by factors like blood sugar and decreased circulation of blood.
    5. Abundant lymphocytes accumulate during the healing process forming a granuloma.
    1. It consists of a large circumscribed granuloma with epithelioid cells with Langerhans cells.
    2. There are small granulomas with few epithelioid cells along with fibrosis.
    3. An ill-defined granuloma with macrophages and epithelioid cells is seen in this type of inflammation.
    4. This type of granulomatous inflammation is also seen in histoplasmosis.
    5. It has a granuloma with Anitchov cells around a core of fibrinoid collagen necrosis.
    1. Platelets
    2. Endothelial cells
    3. Mast cells
    4. Fibroblasts
    5. Lymphocytes
    1. Cyclin-dependent activation of CDK1 (CDC2) takes place upon the entry of a cell into M phase of the cell cycle.
    2. Replication of the genome occurs in the M phase of the cell cycle.
    3. EGF from a blood clot stimulates the growth and proliferation of cells in the healing process.
    4. The G0 phase is the checkpoint before G1.
    5. Inhibitors of DNA synthesis will act at M phase of the cell cycle.
    1. Low serum 25-OH D with low serum calcium levels
    2. Low alkaline phosphatase levels with low serum PTH levels
    3. Low serum 25-OH D with high serum calcium levels
    4. High serum 25-OH D with high phosphate levels
    5. High serum 25-OH D levels with high serum PTH levels
    1. Trisomy 21
    2. Gastroschisis
    3. Spina bifida
    4. Omphalocele
    5. Fetal alcohol syndrome
    1. Heteroplasmy
    2. Variable penetrance
    3. Anticipation
    4. Mosaicism
    5. Uniparental disomy
    1. Deletion in imprinting region
    2. Parenteral uniparental disomy
    3. Incomplete penetrance
    4. Anticipation
    5. Heteroplasmy
    1. High doses can increase the effects of warfarin
    2. Controls serum calcium levels
    3. Is important in rod and cone cells for vision
    4. Deficiency causes impaired blood clotting factors production in the liver
    5. Facilitates iron absorption
    1. γ-carboxylation of clotting factors
    2. γ-carboxylation of calcium
    3. protein C deficiency
    4. activation of 7-dehydrocholesterol by UV light
    5. parathyroid hormone elevation
    1. Turners syndrome
    2. Down’s syndrome
    3. Kartagener's syndrome
    4. Friedreich ataxia
    5. Marfan’s syndrome
    1. Erythematous periorbital rash
    2. Dysphagia
    3. Spasm of blood vessels in response to cold or stress
    4. Thickening and tightening of the skin on the fingers
    5. Gastroesophageal reflux
    1. Anti-Jo-1 antibodies
    2. Anti-Scl-70 antibodies
    3. Anticentromere antibodies
    4. Anti-Sm
    5. Anti-histone antibody
    1. Synthesis requires vitamin B1 and B6
    2. It is used to treat dyslipidemia
    3. It is derived from tryptophan
    4. Synthesis requires vitamin B2 and B6
    5. Its synthesis is impaired in isoniazid therapy
    1. Inhibits dihydrofolate reductase
    2. Intercalates into DNA
    3. Inhibits vitamin B12 activation
    4. Elevates tetrahydrofolate levels
    5. Elevates methylmalonic acid levels
    1. Collagen synthesis
    2. Heme synthesis
    3. Purine synthesis
    4. Protein catabolism
    5. Fatty acid metabolism
    1. Sarcoidosis
    2. Tuberculosis
    3. Silicosis
    4. Hodgkin's lymphoma
    5. Adenocarcinoma of the lung
    1. Rb
    2. JAK2
    3. Her2/neu
    4. BRAF
    5. BCL-2
    1. Overlap syndrome
    2. Systemic sclerosis
    3. Polymyositis
    4. Systemic erythematosus lupus
    5. Rheumatoid arthritis
    1. Fas- FasL interaction
    2. Bcl-2 overexpression
    3. Cytotoxic CD8 T cells
    4. Intrinsic Pathwa
    5. Necrosis
    1. Troponin I
    2. LDH -1
    3. CK-MB
    4. Myoglobin
    5. AST
    1. Intrinsic Apoptotic pathway
    2. Extrinsic Apoptotic pathway
    3. Cytotoxic CD8 T cells pathway
    4. Overexpression of BcL-2 gene
    5. Coagulative Necrosis
    1. Diapedesis of Neutrophils and Chemotactic agents
    2. Activation of cytosolic caspases
    3. Vasoconstriction
    4. Decreased expression of Selectin in the endothelium
    5. Downregulation of regulation of cellular adhesion molecules in the endothelium
    1. Phagolysosome formation by neutrophils
    2. Opsonization
    3. Release of cytotoxic granules by Cytotoxic T cells
    4. Perforins and granzymes by Natural killer cells
    5. Activation of cytosolic caspases
    1. Myeloperoxidase deficiency
    2. Chronic dranulomatous disease
    3. X- Linked Agammaglobulinemia
    4. Chediak Hegashi syndrome
    5. Leukocyte adhesion deficiency-1
    1. Absent respiratory burst
    2. Leukocyte adhesion molecule deficiency
    3. X- Linked Agammaglobulinemia
    4. Phagocytosis defect
    5. Lysosomal trafficking defect
    1. Anti-dsDNA antibodies
    2. Antinuclear antibodies
    3. Anti-histone antibodies
    4. Anti-Ro antibodies
    5. Anti-topoisomerase (anti-Scl 70) antibodies
    1. Decreased PCWP; slightly increased SaO2; increased CO; decreased SVR
    2. Decreased PCWP; normal SaO2; decreased CO; and decreased SVR
    3. Decreased PCWP; decreased SaO2; decreased CO; increased SVR
    4. Normal PCWP; normal SaO2; increased CO; decreased SVR
    5. Increased PCWP; decreased SaO2; decreased CO; increased vascular resistance
    1. Initiate dopamine therapy and diuresis
    2. Insert two large bore intravenous catheters and start rapid fluid resuscitation
    3. Obtain blood cultures and start preliminary broad-spectrum antibiotics
    4. Start intravenous fluids and epinephrine therapy
    5. Intubate the patient and perform an emergency cardiocentesis
    1. Secure the airway and start 100 % oxygen and rapid transport for recompression in a hyperbaric chamber
    2. Insert two large bore IVs and start high volume fluid resuscitation
    3. Obtain a head CT and administer tissue plasminogen activator (tPA)
    4. Give a loading dose of phenytoin followed by 12 hour infusion
    5. Obtain an electrocardiogram and bolus amiodarone
    1. Huntington’s disease
    2. Fragile X syndrome
    3. Spinobulbar muscular atrophy
    4. Myotonic dystrophy
    5. Friedreich’s ataxia
    1. It is transmitted only through the mother
    2. Skips generations
    3. It can be transmitted through both parents
    4. Mothers transmit to 50 % of daughters and son
    5. Commonly more severe in males
    1. 46, XY
    2. 46, XX
    3. 45, X0
    4. 47, XXX
    5. 47, XXY
    1. Saddle nose
    2. Chorioretinitis
    3. Muscle atrophy
    4. Hearing loss
    5. Seizures
    1. I, II, IV
    2. I, II, III
    3. I, IV, VI
    4. I, IV, V
    5. I, II, IV, V
    1. Cardiac Index: Decreased / Systemic vascular resistance: Increased / Pulmonary artery wedge pressure: Decreased
    2. Cardiac Index: Decreased / Systemic vascular resistance: Increased / Pulmonary artery wedge pressure: Normal
    3. Cardiac Index: Increased / Systemic vascular resistance: Decreased / Pulmonary artery wedge pressure: Normal
    4. Cardiac Index: Decreased / Systemic vascular resistance: Normal / Pulmonary artery wedge pressure: Normal
    1. I, II, IV
    2. I, II, III
    3. I, III
    4. I, V
    5. I, III, IV
    1. Aromatic amine exposure
    2. Alcohol
    3. Genetic predisposition
    4. Vinyl chloride exposure
    5. Schistosoma haematobium infection
    1. Abnormal intrapancreatic activation of digestive enzymes, causing an acute inflammatory reaction and necrosis of surrounding tissue
    2. An obstruction or impairment of flow from the pancreatic duct due to gallstones
    3. An acute tear in the intimal layer of the descending thoracic aorta
    4. Medication side effect
    5. Hollow viscus perforation
    1. Deep-partial thickness
    2. Erythema
    3. Superficial
    4. Superficial-partial thickness
    5. Full thickness
    1. Heat stroke
    2. Heat exhaustion
    3. A mutation of the COL4A5 gene
    4. Neisseria meningitides
    5. IgA nephropathy
    1. Local invasion via collagenase
    2. Lymphatic spread
    3. Seeding
    4. Hematogenous spread
    5. It is a benign tumor with no chances of spreading
    1. PTH (parathormone)-related protein production by tumor cells
    2. Hematogenous spread
    3. Collagenase produced by cancer cells dissolves the basement membrane and aids in cellular invasion
    4. Seeding
    5. Lymphatic spread
    1. Autosomal dominant
    2. X-linked recessive
    3. It is not a genetic condition
    4. Autosomal recessive
    5. X-linked dominant
    1. According to the recommendations for screening by the CDC, we must do a pap smear now. Blood tests are not recommended for screening purposes.
    2. Information on the internet is vague and unreliable. You don’t need any tests at this time.
    3. Yes, you are right, let us do mammogram, and a blood test for CA-125.
    4. Your last pap smear 3 years ago was normal. We can repeat it after 2 more years. Let us do the mammogram now.
    5. You need HPV (Human Papilloma Virus) co-testing only.
    1. We should do a genetic test followed by colonoscopy.
    2. Your son doesn’t need to be tested now.
    3. We should do a colonoscopy for him now.
    4. He should undergo a prophylactic colonic resection.
    5. The risk for colon cancer is same as that of the general population, even with the mutation. Screening can be started by 50 years of age.
    1. Total lack of B and T cells
    2. Defect of NADPH oxidase in phagocyte
    3. Absence of CD18 in leukocytes
    4. Deficiency in CD40L on activated T-cells
    5. The mice should be asymptomatic
    1. HLA-DR4
    2. HLA-DQ2
    3. HLA-B27
    4. HLA-DR2
    5. HLA-DR5
    1. I, IV, V
    2. I, III, IV
    3. II, IV, V
    4. II, IV
    5. II, III, IV
    1. 3 % NaCl
    2. Furosemide
    3. Relcovaptan
    4. Indapamide
    5. 0.9 % NaCl
    1. Aldosterone
    2. Hydrochlorothiazide
    3. Spironolactone
    4. Furosemide
    5. Atrial natriuretic peptide
    1. I, II, IV, V
    2. I, III, V
    3. II, IV, V, VII
    4. III, VI, VII
    1. Blood smear findings include spherocytes.
    2. The direct Coombs test is positive if there are antibodies in the serum.
    3. The indirect Coombs test is positive if red blood cells are coated with antibody or complement.
    4. Parvovirus B19 can trigger IHA.
    5. Heinz bodies are common findings in blood smear.
    1. I, IV, V
    2. I, IV
    3. I, II
    4. II, III, IV
    5. III, IV
    1. Anti-smith antibody
    2. Anti-nuclear antibody
    3. Anti-histone antibody
    4. Anti-Ro antibody
    5. Anti-dsDNA
    1. JC virus
    2. Pneumocystis jirovecii
    3. Herpes virus 8
    4. Mycobacterium avium complex
    5. Candida albicans
    1. Acute HIV infection
    2. AIDS
    3. Latent HIV infection
    4. Asymptomatic
    5. Other etiology
    1. Tuberculosis
    2. Histoplasmosis
    3. Cytomegalovirus
    4. Pneumocystis jirovecii
    5. Mycobacterium avium complex
    1. p24 antigen
    2. CD4
    3. Viral load
    4. Lactic dehydrogenase
    5. Anti-HCV antigen
    1. Enalapril
    2. Penicillin
    3. Sulfadiazine
    4. Losartan
    5. The patient has no contraindications.
    1. Lungs
    2. Lower extremities
    3. Brain
    4. Small bowel
    5. Spleen
    1. C9
    2. CD55 (Decay accelerating factor)
    3. CD4
    4. C1 esterase inhibitor
    5. Calcineurin
    1. β2-microglobulin
    2. Ig light chains
    3. Amyloid A (AA)
    4. Amyloid precursor protein
    5. Urine tests will only characteristic to end-stage kidney disease
    1. AL amyloid
    2. Amylin
    3. Calcitonin
    4. Mutated transthyretin
    5. Аβ amyloid
    1. II, IV, VI, VII
    2. I, II, IV, VII

    Author of lecture Pathology Question Set 2

     Lecturio USMLE

    Lecturio USMLE


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