Lectures

Neurology Question Set 1

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    About the Lecture

    The lecture Neurology Question Set 1 by Lecturio USMLE is from the course Neurology - High Yield Questions.


    Included Quiz Questions

    1. Schmidt-Lanterman clefts are more common in peripheral nervous system than in central nervous system.
    2. A single Schwann cell usually myelinates 10-20 axons.
    3. In peripheral nervous system, most neurons are myelinated by oligodendrocytes that form myelin.
    4. Myelin sheath does not affect structure of the axon it surrounds.
    5. The process of myelination begins immediately after birth.
    1. T2W images are less sensitive than T1W images to demyelination.
    2. T1 relaxation time is the time for 63% of the hydrogen protons to return to their normal equilibrium state.
    3. Fat has higher signal intensity than brain on T1W images.
    4. T1W images are more sensitive than T2W images to subacute hemorrhage.
    5. Structures containing more water, such as cerebrospinal fluid or edema, have longer T1 and T2 relaxation rates than normal brain tissue
    1. Replacing the stylet prior to removal of the needle during lumbar puncture.
    2. To remain in bed rest up to 4 hours following lumbar puncture.
    3. Administration of supplemental fluids following lumbar puncture.
    4. Minimization of the spinal fluid to be removed by lumbar puncture.
    5. To allow immediate mobilization following lumbar puncture.
    1. Increased dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens
    2. Increased serotonin release in the red nucleus
    3. Increased dopamine release in medial septal nucleus
    4. Increased serotonin release in the dentate nucleus
    5. Increased dopamine release in the nucleus coeruleus
    1. EPM2A on chromosome 6q
    2. Doublecortin on chromosome Xq
    3. CSTB on chromosome 21q
    4. SCN1A on chromosome 2q
    5. EPM2B on chromosome 6q
    1. Topiramate
    2. Lamotrigine
    3. Tiagabine
    4. Zonisamide
    5. Gabapentin
    1. Valproic acid
    2. Topiramate
    3. Lamotrigine
    4. Carbamazepine
    5. Gabapentin
    1. Tacrine is not used in treatment of Alzheimer’s dementia due to nephrotoxicity.
    2. Estrogen replacement therapy may protect women against development of Alzheimer’s dementia.
    3. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) do not stop progression of dementia in patients with clinically symptomatic Alzheimer’s dementia.
    4. Memantine acts by blocking N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptors.
    5. Bradycardia caused by cholinesterase inhibitors is usually benign.
    1. Pulmonary tuberculosis
    2. Iron deficiency anemia
    3. Renal failure
    4. Peripheral neuropathy
    5. Lyme disease
    1. Refsum’s disease
    2. Cerebellar ataxia type 2
    3. Ataxia telengiectasia
    4. Neuropathy-Ataxia Retinitis-Pigmentosa (NARP)
    5. Kearns-Sayre syndrome
    1. Phases III and IV are mediated by baroreceptor reflexes that require intact efferent sympathetic responses.
    2. During phase I, blood pressure rises due to increased intrathoracic pressure.
    3. During early phase II, normally there is fall in blood pressure and rise in heart rate.
    4. During late phase II, normally there is increase in both blood pressure and heart rate.
    5. Valsalva ratio is defined as the maximum phase II tachycardia divided by the minimum phase IV bradycardia.
    1. Hypertension is a risk factor for trigeminal neuralgia.
    2. Demyelination of large myelinated fibers of trigeminal nerve causes trigeminal neuralgia because they carry both tactile and pain sensations from the face.
    3. When trigeminal neuralgia is caused by compression of the trigeminal nerve root by a blood vessel, the blood vessel is most often inferior cerebellar artery.
    4. In trigeminal neuralgia, pain in distribution of ophthalmic division of the trigeminal nerve is very common.
    5. Microvascular decompression is more successful in patients with constant non-lancinating facial pain than in patients with classic lancinating paroxysmal facial pain.
    1. William’s theory proposes that syringomyelia results from water-hammer-like transmission of pulsatile CSF pressure via a communication between the 4th ventricle and central canal of spinal cord through the obex.
    2. More than half of the cases are associated with Chiari type I malformation.
    3. Most common intramedullary tumors associated with syringomyelia are ependymoma and hemangioblastoma.
    4. Numbness and sensory loss over face may be caused by damage to descending tract of the trigeminal nerve.
    5. In approximately 10% of cases, the syrinx may be communicating with the 4th ventricle.
    1. Acute contusions are seen as hypointensities on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) sequences.
    2. Acute contusions are visible on CT scans as inhomogeneous hyperdensities.
    3. Plaques jaunes are important sources of post-traumatic epilepsy.
    4. Contusions involving frontal lobes are associated with a taciturn state.
    5. Contusions involving temporal lobes are associated with an aggressive combative syndrome.
    1. Anti-Decorin antibody
    2. Anti-MuSK antibody
    3. Anti-lrp4 antibody
    4. Anti-agrin antibody
    5. Anti-striational antibody
    1. Back pain associated with epidural metastasis is exacerbated by lying down.
    2. Most common region of spine affected by epidural metastasis is lumbar spine.
    3. Colorectal carcinoma is the most common primary malignancy that metastasizes to epidural space.
    4. CT (computed tomography) scan of spine is equally useful as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of spine in diagnosis of epidural metastasis.
    5. Preferred treatment of epidural metastasis is combination of chemotherapy and surgery.
    1. When applied to CSF, a negative real-time automated nucleic acid amplification (Xpert MTB/RIF assay) rules out tuberculous meningitis.
    2. In early stages, CSF may exhibit neutrophil dominant pleocytosis.
    3. Smear examination of CSF sediment for presence of acid fast bacilli is more likely to be positive for adults than for children with tuberculous meningitis.
    4. In patients with tuberculous meningitis, acellular CSF is more common in HIV-infected patients than in HIV-negative patients.
    5. Normal CSF protein content does not rule our possibility of tuberculous meningitis.
    1. Despite demyelination being hallmark of multiple sclerosis, oligodendrocyte precursor cells may be present in many multiple sclerosis plaques.
    2. As a result of demyelination, voltage-dependent potassium channels, originally concentrated at Nodes of Ranvier, are redistributed along the demyelinated axon.
    3. In new multiple sclerosis lesions, inflammation caused by T lymphocytes and macrophages disrupts both blood-brain-barrier and vessel walls.
    4. In multiple sclerosis, shadow plaques are produced due to astrocytic proliferation.
    5. Presence of axonal destruction rules out possibility of multiple sclerosis.
    1. Red nucleus
    2. Periaqueductal gray
    3. Dorsal raphe nucleus
    4. Locus coeruleus
    5. Nucleus raphe magnus
    1. Decrease in intracellular Na+
    2. Increase in extracellular K+
    3. Accumulation of Ca2+ in presynaptic terminals
    4. Activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor
    5. Ephaptic interactions

    Author of lecture Neurology Question Set 1

     Lecturio USMLE

    Lecturio USMLE


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