So now I’m going to talk about is partially
related topic and that is something called
And this refers to the growth of an urban
areas as people move from rural areas.
So when we’re talking about globalization,
we’re talking movement of people
on typically they go from a lot of times
in developing worlds to industrial places
or improve their business by going to
countries where they are quite industrial.
We’re going to bring this down the scale and
we’re saying in our communities, in our cities,
in our countries we have this movement
of individuals moving away from
more developing or rural areas toward
the actions at and that’s in urban areas.
So urbanization refers to that process.
Now, it was tight to the
industrialization like I said.
An industrialized countries have
more people living in urban areas.
So North America and Europe
would fall in that category.
And the global rate of urbanization
is approximately 50 %.
And it’s roughly 80 % in the States.
So what we’re saying is
more and more people are coming to live
in the city center or coming to live in
urban areas versus living in rural
more green space, more farm like areas.
Now, let’s take a look at the impact
of industrialization on urban growth.
The first is obviously considered the
good thing and that’s Economic Advancement
or greater employment for people
versus those in rural areas.
It’s one of the reasons why they come.
They can't find work in the farmlands
where areas we don’t have a lot of businesses
and they come to the city center.
So economically speaking it’s good
for those trying to find work.
There's also better infrastructures, improve
access to road ways, to transit, to utilities.
Socially speaking you have better
education, health services, quality of care,
more doctors, more amenities.
And culturally speaking,
it can become a cultural melting pot.
So a lot of multiculturalism
about the art, food, entertainment
you get things like ethnic villages, you got
your Chinatowns, you got a little Italy.
You have all these areas to become this great
spot where you can really be culturally immersed.
You can go eat different types of food
every night of the week if you wish.
So these are all sort of potential
positives of this urbanization.
Now, some of the other things to
consider are the fact that urbanization
can lead to overcrowding.
So the city centers really not going
to change unless you repurpose it.
But typically the area that you have is set.
And so you going to have to if you have
more more people wanting to come there
you can get pretty crowded.
It leads to this long large condo
building where units are small.
And it jam in as much people
as you can into a building.
The roads are quite congested, parking is
always an issue. There's a lot of factors
that are lining towards the overcrowding.
So a phenomenon that happens or
something called Suburbanization.
And this is when you see a population shift
from the immediate central urban centers
or your urban cores.
and you’re going to satellite areas which
are just on the fringe of the city center.
So we call those suburban areas
or they’re known as the “suburbs”.
And they’re still sort of close to the city
center but and they’re not as far as rural areas
And they’re somewhere in between.
Now, things to consider for suburbanization are lower cost.
So by moving away from the immediate city center
they bring down the cost of the property.
And so the cost of the houses is lower, okay.
Now, we also have the issue of
your having to commute now.
So if we increase the distance to get back to
those who need to go the city center for work.
So it’s great because you’ve come
to the city to find work
but you can't afford to live in the city
'cause everything is so expensive.
and it’s very crowded.
So you say, “will just live just outside
the city. So I can afford that house,
So have a little bit more room
but I still have to travel.”
You also might have less access to
some of the services that they have
right in immediate city center, right. So you have
less access to education, health services care.
You would also not have the same level of
access to the cultural positives like I said,
the little hubs, restaurants,
art shows all that kind of stuffs.
Now, that being said it’s not as bad as be
in the rural area because being in the suburbs
it is a longer commute than living the city
center but it’s not an impossible commute
it still a lot less than you
would have for in the rural areas.
Now, there's been an increase popularity
of suburbs due to the cost in the relative
improvement and quality of life
versus living right in the city center
that’s created a natural urban decline.
So, people originally came from
rural areas to the urban city centers.
but they realized that it’s really
crowded, it’s extremely expensive.
So why I’ll just go and just go outside
it’s more manageable I can do that.
Good but then it’s drawing out
people who were in the city center.
Now that has an effect.
So urban decline is the fall of urbanization
in the area and this can lead to
now unemployment because people are leaving.
And so now you’ve less people and
it doesn’t always have to be
jobs that are professional jobs. It could be
support jobs or it’s you think of restaurants.
you think of those clean the streets.
All the different things that we need
if you have more and more people.
And people are moving,
All of the sudden, are moving some of those
jobs and needs outside of the city center.
You might have increase in crime
you can have abandoned building,
you have areas that are not more quiet.
You got people, who don’t have
the employment or now need money,
crime and violence will increase.
It will also have decline in somebody
infrastructure in buildings
because their falling into this repair,
because people aren’t needing them anymore.
They are renovating them to live there,
roads don’t need the same level of access.
And so people start to move out and some
of the infrastructure and the buildings decline.
So one of the ways to combat areas that
are starting to fall down a little bit
is this process of Gentrification.
So that is the process by reclaiming
down-trodden urban areas
and renewing them. So
we call that urban renewal.
And this allows for sort of defunct to run
down areas of the neighborhood to be updated,
reorganized, bring it some more updated
services, maybe some new restaurants,
maybe what’s trendy, what’s hot. And we’re
trying to sort of give that area a facelift.
So it’s good but it also have
some other issue we have to consider.
So by fixing up an area that once was
considered low income or low in the SES scale,
it’s now a fresh hotspot. And so we've
increase of property value in result
with increase the taxes
required to live there.
That will actually kick some of
people out who were there before,
who weren’t and still are low income
families and smaller businesses
that can't afford these
new updated higher taxes.
So it causes some of them to be in disrepair.
Sorry, in a situation they can't handle anymore,
they’re going to have to move.
So shifted value goes from the people
who were low on the scale, the SES scale
and shifts it back to the affluent people.
'Cause the only ones who can really afford
to live there in these new trendier areas
are those who are living more money
pushes out those who don’t have the money
is not the power has been shifted
to those who were affluent.