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Systemic and Arterial Blood Pressure (Nursing)

by Jasmine Clark

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    00:01 So now let's look at the different pressures throughout the body.

    00:04 Starting with systemic blood pressure.

    00:07 So the pumping action of the heart is going to generate our blood flow.

    00:12 The pressure results when the flow is opposed by the resistance in our vessels.

    00:17 Our systemic pressure is going to be highest at the aorta.

    00:22 And as the blood flows throughout our system, it's going to decline throughout the pathway.

    00:28 The steepest drop of systemic pressure is going to happen we move into the arterioles.

    00:35 So as you can see in the graph, blood pressure is highest in the largest vessels beginning at the aorta and leaving the heart.

    00:43 As the diameter of the vessels decrease and move further away from the aorta, the pressure decreases.

    00:51 Once the blood passes through the capillaries and goes to the veins, the pressure is very low.

    00:59 This is why our venous system is considered a low pressure system.

    01:05 So now let's look at the different types of blood pressure.

    01:08 Starting with arterial blood pressure.

    01:11 Our arterial blood pressure or the blood pressure in our arteries is determined by two factors: First, the elasticity of the artery, especially of the arteries close to the heart.

    01:25 This is referred to as compliance or the distensibility of our arteries.

    01:31 Second, the volume of the blood that is forced into the arteries at any given time.

    01:39 So the blood pressure nearest to the heart is pulsatile.

    01:43 It's going to rise and fall with each heartbeat.

    01:48 So we measure the arterial blood pressure using two parameters.

    01:53 The systolic pressure is going to be the pressure that is exerted in the aorta during a ventricular contraction.

    02:01 The left ventricle is going to pump blood into the aorta, and this is going to impart a kinetic energy that causes the aorta to stretch.

    02:11 The average systolic pressure is about 120 mm Hg in a normal adult.

    02:18 The second parameter is our diastolic pressure.

    02:21 This is going to be the lowest level of aortic pressure when the heart is in diastole or at rest.

    02:30 We also have the pulse pressure.

    02:32 The pulse pressure is measured as the difference between the systolic and the diastolic pressure.

    02:39 Our pulse is going to be the throbbing of our arteries due to the difference in the pulse pressures, which can be felt under our skin.

    02:50 We can also measure the mean arterial pressure, which is the pressure that propels our blood to our tissues.

    02:58 The pulse pressure phases out as we get to the end of the arterial tree, and flow becomes nonpulsatile with a steady mean arterial pressure, the further away we get from the heart.

    03:13 Our heart is going to spend more time in diastole than it does in systole.

    03:18 So our mean arterial pressure cannot just be simply an average of the diastole to the systole.

    03:27 We measure our mean arterial pressure by adding the diastolic pressure to 1/3 of the pulse pressure.

    03:35 Where if you recall, the pulse pressure is equal to the systolic minus the diastolic pressure.

    03:42 So for example, if an individual has a blood pressure of 120/80, where 120 is the systolic pressure and 80 is the diastolic pressure, then the pulse pressure is going to be 40.

    03:57 And the mean arterial pressure will be measured as 80 + 1/3 of 40, which gives you about 93 mm Hg.

    04:08 Note, that the pulse pressure and the mean arterial pressure are both going to decline with increasing distance from the heart.


    About the Lecture

    The lecture Systemic and Arterial Blood Pressure (Nursing) by Jasmine Clark is from the course Cardiovascular System: Blood Vessels – Physiology (Nursing).


    Included Quiz Questions

    1. Elasticity of arteries close to the heart and the volume of blood forced into them at any time
    2. Elasticity of arterioles far from the heart and the amount of blood forced into the capillaries
    3. Resistance of arteries close to the heart and the vasodilation or vasoconstriction that results
    4. Resistance and elasticity of veins close to the heart
    1. Pressure exerted in the aorta during ventricular contraction
    2. Pressure exerted in the aorta during ventricular relaxation
    3. The lowest level of aortic pressure when the heart is at rest
    4. The lowest level of aortic pressure when the heart contracts
    1. The lowest level of aortic pressure when the heart is at rest
    2. Pressure exerted in the aorta during ventricular contraction
    3. Pressure exerted in the aorta during ventricular relaxation
    4. The lowest level of aortic pressure when the heart contracts
    1. Pulse
    2. Pulse pressure
    3. Mean arterial pressure
    4. Blood pressure
    1. MAP = diastolic pressure + 1/3 x pulse pressure
    2. MAP = diastolic pressure x 1/3 systolic pressure
    3. MAP = systolic pressure – heart rate
    4. MAP = systolic pressure – 1/3 diastolic pressure

    Author of lecture Systemic and Arterial Blood Pressure (Nursing)

     Jasmine Clark

    Jasmine Clark


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