Hi. Welcome to our video series on infectious disease precautions.
In this video series, we'll take a look at the differences between contact, droplet, and airborne precautions.
Now, we're gonna start with an easy question. What are precautions in health care?
If you had to come up with a definition, how would you describe them?
Well, precautions are very specific procedures.
The goal is to prevent the transmission of infectious microorganisms.
Think of it like these three circles that you see on your screen.
There's contact, droplet, and airborne.
Now, it can be very difficult to maintain the airborne precautions.
It requires extra special equipment but we'll get to more of that later.
Keep in mind, these are precautions are transmission based.
That means if a disease is passed by contact, then we use contact precautions.
If it's passed by droplets, that's why we use droplet precautions.
I know you're getting the idea as we go through this.
So, when we use those names, contact, droplet, and airborne,
that just refers to the way the diseases we're trying to prevent from spreading normally spread.
Are you ready for another question?
Let's look at what's the difference between universal or standard precautions and transmission precautions.
Alright, so, on the screen, you see a picture of transmission precautions.
How are these different than universal or standard precautions?
Well, let's walk through what universal or standard precautions are.
Universal or standard precautions are the basic level of precautions that are of the minimum standard for all patients.
So, anyone who's being taken care, these are four really important points
that all of us follow when you follow universal or standard precautions.
The idea is we wanna reduce the risk of transmission of microorganisms while you're taking care of the patient.
That means from the patient to me as the health care provider,
for me as the healthcare provider to the patient, and to other patients.
So, first up, it's under all precautions is hand hygiene.
Everyone has to practice good hand hygiene.
You wanna have clean hands when you walk into the room
and you also wanna wash your hands after you're taking care of the patient.
The second one is respiratory hygiene or cough etiquette.
That means you wanna be careful about where you're coughing.
So, if we teach little kids wanna go and do germs with the five year olds which is one of my favorite things to do with student nurses.
We teach them to cough into their elbows so they end up covering that. That's cough etiquette.
They can also use a Kleenex or a tissue when they're going to cough.
So, first up, hand hygiene, that's for everybody.
Respiratory hygiene and cough etiquette is the second category.
The third one is personal protective equipment.
Now, as healthcare providers, anytime we run the risk of exposing ourselves to patient body fluids,
you wanna make sure that you have gloves on.
And we'll talk about more in detail with the specific transmission protocols, what extra PPE you'll need to wear.
But standard, universal precautions require that everyone should wear gloves when interacting
and caring for a patient when you might be exposed to body fluids.
So, we've got hand hygiene, respiratory and cough etiquette,
personal protective equipment or PPE and the last one is be careful with the sharps.
Sharps need to be safely disposed of in an official sharps container.
Now, look at the one that we have on the screen there, do you see what it's got?
That's a needle heading in for disposal. You don't ever want to recap your needle unless it's a very specialized safety cap.
But don't pick a cap up and take your hypodermic end, put them back on.
You really risk sticking yourself cuz sometimes, that needle will go back through the cap if you recap a needle.
So, you wanna dispose of that sharp right into a sharps container.
Now, they have a special lid that you can see on the side there.
When it's full or not completely full, about three quarters full, you slide that lid over and change it out for a new one.
So, that's universal or standard precautions in a nutshell.
Hand hygiene, respiratory hygiene, and cough etiquette, personal protective equipment
which for now is gonna mainly be gloves and the fourth one is disposing of sharps safely.