Hi! I’m Joanna Jackson, and in this lesson, we’ll
review standard precautions in transmission-based
precautions. A quick overview of what we’ll
review today. Assessment of client care areas,
principles of communicable diseases, principles
of infection control, and tips to remember
this content. Always remember to assess the
patient care areas. There are hundreds of
living organisms and body fluids that can
cause disease, reduce the risk whenever it’s
possible. Ensure patient care areas are clean
and void of infection-causing organisms.
Ensure hazardous material containers are emptied
as needed. Empty bedside commodes and urinals
as needed. And discard food trays as soon
as it’s possible. Standard precautions are
infection control techniques and practices
employed to prevent and reduce the transmission
of diseases. Basic precautions should be used
at all times with all patients, regardless
if you know that they have a disease or an
infection. Additional precautions such as
barriers should be used when a specific disease
is identified, known or suspected. The basic
ideas of standard precaution include hand
hygiene, personal protective equipment, safe
disposal of sharps, correct reprocessing of
instruments, respiratory hygiene and cough
etiquette, aseptic technique which means non-touch,
and disposal of waste and linens properly.
Standard precautions are infection control
techniques. The first one and most commonly
known is hand washing. Now, let’s review
proper hand washing procedure. Use warm water.
Hot water can dry your skin. Vigorously rub
all areas of your hand, including the back
of your hands and your nail beds and your
wrists for 20 to 60 seconds. Rinse with warm
water by letting the water run down from the
wrist to your fingers, with your hands in the
sink like this. Do not touch the faucet. Turn
it off with a clean dry paper towel when
you’re finished. Next, we’ll review Personal
Protective Equipment, also known as PPE.
Personal Protective Equipment includes gloves, masks,
goggles, face shields, and gowns. The most
common PPE used is gloves. Use gloves when
in contact with any bodily fluids. Use for
general client care. Wash hands before and
after you use gloves. Change in between each
patient and when soiled, torn or punctured.
Wear during cleaning to protect yourself from
strong or hazardous chemicals. And use proper
procedure to remove, to avoid yourself from
accidentally coming in contact with any fluids
on the gloves. Masks are also frequently used
PPE. Masks should be firmly fitted to cover your
nose and your mouth. Change masks frequently.
Remove by using the elastic strings and do
not reuse masks. The sequence for putting
on PPE is really important to avoid contact with
fluids. Hand hygiene is first, then a gown, then masks,
then goggles or any protective
eyewear, followed by your gloves. Taking off
your PPE is as equally important. Start by
removing your gloves. Perform hand hygiene.
Then remove goggles or any protective eyewear.
Then proceed to remove your gown, your mask,
and perform hand hygiene again. Another really
important concept of standard precautions
includes the proper disposal of any sharp item.
These items can penetrate skin and
should be disposed of or removed properly.
Do not recap needles, use containers labelled
sharp and ensure the disposal containers are
emptied frequently or as needed. Now, we will
review additional precautions. These are used
in addition to standard precautions.
Standard precautions should be used at all times. One
additional precaution includes droplet precautions.
Droplets are generated primarily through coughing,
sneezing, or even talking. Transmission via
large-particle droplets requires close contact
between the source and recipient.
Droplets generally travel only a short distance, usually
no more than three feet. If you have a patient
on droplet precautions, make sure when possible
to remain three feet away from them or use
a mask. Droplets do not remain suspended in the
air. So, special ventilation is not required
to prevent droplet transmission. When possible,
the patient should have a private room, and
use a mask if performing any care requiring
you to be closer in three feet. Next is contact
precaution. Direct contact transmission involves
skin to skin contact and physical transfer
of microorganisms. This frequently occurs
during activities that require physical contact.
Direct contact transmission can also occur
from a contaminated inanimate object.
Use gloves, gowns, frequent hand hygiene, avoid
sharing equipment, and clean according to
the protocol between use. Airborne precautions.
These are used to protect against the transmission
of infectious agents. Preventing airborne
transmission focuses on personal, respiratory
protection, and special ventilation. And examples
include chickenpox, measles, tuberculosis.
Use of special rooms such as negative pressure
rooms or positive pressure rooms to limit
the spread of illness. Quick ways to remember
this content: say information out loud, practice
talking to friends or in the mirror as if you
were the nurse talking to a patient, make
up funny or quirky acronyms about medications
or processes that will help you remember them.
For example, the nursing process can be remembered as ADPIE-
assess, diagnose, plan, implement, and then evaluate.
Visualize this. In the example ADPIE,
visualize an apple pie with
the letters AD on it. Then the NCLEX will be
as easy as eating pie. When in doubt, assess,
diagnose, plan, and then implement. Always
assess before taking any action at all.
If two answers feel correct, do your best to
pick the best answer. And opposites attract.
If two answers are complete opposites, one
is usually the correct answer.