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by Joseph Alpert, MD

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00:01 So, it turns out that the - by convention over the years, the EKG has come to have 12 different leads.

00:09 That is 12 different points that are looking at the wave of depolarization going down through the heart.

00:16 And the earliest ones from Einthoven were so-called leads I, II and III.

00:22 So, these leads are all designated by the points on a compass, 0 to 360 degrees.

00:29 Lead I is over here and it's looking in at the heart from the left point - like the left arm in.

00:40 And that is designated as zero degree. Lead II is looking from here; that's +60 degrees.

00:47 And lead III is looking from here; that's +120 degrees.

01:00 Leads aVR, aVL and aVF. Lead aVF is looking from straight down below; that's +90 degrees.

01:07 aVL is looking from -30; that's up here.

01:11 And aVR is looking from +210 from right over here on the right arm.

01:16 These are all looking in a frontal plane just as if we were a flat plane of - that the body was standing in.

01:25 So here we see again the leads I said before, the Einthoven leads.

01:29 Lead I coming in from the left arm; that's zero degree. Lead II, +60 degrees coming from here.

01:35 And lead III, 120 degrees plus.

01:39 We also have leads that are cutting the heart right down in a section just as if it were right through the body like this.

01:46 Those leads are placed on the chest out here.

01:49 Here's lead I, lead II, III and IV starting at the right sternal border and working around to the axilla.

01:56 And they give you views of the depolarization wave in a plane and that's V1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6.

02:07 And all of these leads, well, the ones we said before, lead I, II and III, aVR, aVL and aVF, V1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 are all printed out on a piece of paper or appear on a computer screen for interpretation.

The lecture Standard 12 Lead ECG by Joseph Alpert, MD is from the course Electrocardiogram (ECG) Interpretation.

### Included Quiz Questions

1. All of the leads are placed on the same side of the sternum.
2. There are 6 precordial leads.
3. V1 and V2 are the most anterior.
4. V5 and V6 are the most lateral.
5. Precordial leads give information in the transverse plane.

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By Yashmita P. on 11. November 2021 for Standard 12 Lead ECG