So to wrap up this lecture, the spinal cord is the
anatomical structure found in the vertebral canal
that extends from the foramen
magnum of the skull to the L2 vertebrae.
The spinal cord has three major layers
of protection, including the vertebrae itself,
the connective tissue meninges, and the
cerebrospibnal fluid that it is suspended in.
The spinal cord is made up of white matter
which contains sensory and motor tracts
and the grey matter which is important
for integration of sensory impulses.
Extending from the spinal cord,
we have 31 pairs of spinal nerves.
The spinal nerves are attached to the spinal cord at
the posterior and anterior roots also known as rami.
These can further branch and two networks
with neighboring rami to form plexuses.
The function of the spinal
cord is to process reflexes,
integrate EPSPs and IPSPs and
conduct sensory and motor impulses.
Spinal reflexes are those fast
involuntary, unplanned responses to stimuli
used to help maintain homeostasis.
Reflex arcs contains a sensory
stimulus, sensory neurons,
association neurons and in some
cases, motor neurons and effectors.
Reflex arcs can be ipsilateral where
the sensory neuron and the motor neuron
both go in and leave from the same side
contralateral where they go in
and leave from opposite sides, monosynaptic where the sensory neuron is going to synapse directly with the motor neuron, polysynaptic where there's going to be
the association neurin between the sensory and the motor neurin and they can involve reciprocal innervation where the agonistic muscle will contract while the antagonistic muscle will relax.
monosynaptic where the sensory neuron is
going to synapse directly with the motor neuron,
Polysynaptic in which there's
going to be an association neuron
between the sensory and the motor neuron
and they can involve reciprocal innervation
where the agonistic muscle will contract
while the antagonistic muscle will relax.
And finally, homeostatic imbalances of the
spinal cord and the spinal nerve physiology
can lead to spinal cord inuries such
as paralysis, degenerative diseases
and also different types of palsy.
And that concludes our lecture on
the spinal cord and the spinal nerves.
Thank you for watching