Sleep Disorders (Dyssomnias)

by Carlo Raj, MD

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    Our topic now brings us to dyssomnias. So primary sleep disorders producing either difficulty initiating and maintaining sleep or excessive daytime somnolence. Once again, keep separate initiation, maintenance, and how that then affects you during the day when you have sleep deprivation at night. Dyssomnias: Narcolepsy, obstructive sleep apnea, restless leg syndrome, and insomnia are conditions that will – or dyssomnias that we shall take a look at. Narcolepsy, excessive daytime sleeping. Think of it as being sleep attacks. Hypnagogic hallucinations. Sleep paralysis. Remember during the daytime. And we have a term called cataplexy, which is a brief loss of muscle tone. So at this point, during narcolepsy, if there is an attack of cataplexy, the muscle tone has been lost. Consciousness, however, is preserved and often triggered by emotion, cataplexy as a symptom or as a sign of narcolepsy, Management: Stimulants such as pemoline or methylphenidate. And we have clomipramine, which is a tricyclic antidepressant for cataplexy if present. Another type of dyssomnia would be obstructive sleep apnea, excessive daytime sleepiness. Why? Repetitive episodes of upper airway obstruction during sleep. So in an adult, you’ll have the pharyngeal folds in which if they’re excessive, may then cause actual obstruction when trying to then breathe. And so therefore, during the period of sleep, there might be apnea taking place and therefore, awakening the patient. That’s fragmented sleep and so therefore, with that type of fragmented sleep that’s taking place, please understand that the daytime somnolence is taking place due to the lack of proper sleep at night. Associated with an increase risk of, as you can imagine, an obese individual, obstructive, stroke, hypertension, myocardial infarction. It could all be part of associations with obstructive sleep apnea. Management: Weight loss. You have an obese individual, makes it more difficult to breathe...

    About the Lecture

    The lecture Sleep Disorders (Dyssomnias) by Carlo Raj, MD is from the course Sleep. It contains the following chapters:

    • Dyssomnias
    • Narcolepsy
    • Obstructive Sleep Apnea
    • Restless Legs Syndrome
    • Parasomnias

    Author of lecture Sleep Disorders (Dyssomnias)

     Carlo Raj, MD

    Carlo Raj, MD

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