Skin Cancer, Burns and Pressure Ulcers (Nursing)

by Jasmine Clark

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    00:01 Another homeostatic imbalance that can be found in the skin is skin cancer.

    00:06 This is usually due to excessive exposure to ultraviolet light or exposure to certain cancer-causing chemicals.

    00:14 There are three major types of skin cancer.

    00:17 There's basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and malignant melanoma.

    00:23 Basal cell carcinoma usually affects the cells found in the stratum basale layer of the epidermis.

    00:30 Squamous cell carcinoma however is going to affect the living cells usually found in the more superficial layers of the epidermis.

    00:40 Finally, malignant melanoma affects the melanocytes that are also found in that basal layer of the epidermis.

    00:51 Most skin cancers are gonna present themselves as moles.

    00:55 So how do you tell the difference between a benign mole and a cancerous mole? For this we use the 'abcde' system.

    01:05 First check the symmetry of the mole.

    01:09 Most cancerous moles are very asymmetric whereas benign moles have a nice symmetry to them.

    01:18 The second layer is the borders.

    01:20 Look at the borders of the mole.

    01:23 Benign moles have very distinguished or uniformed borders whereas cancerous moles, the borders are a lot less uniform or hard to distinguish.

    01:34 The third way is color.

    01:37 A benign mole is usually one colour, usually a darkened pigment.

    01:43 Cancerous moles however can appear as a variety of different colors.

    01:49 Next, the diameter.

    01:51 The diameter of benign moles is usually much smaller than that of cancerous moles.

    01:58 And finally, evolving.

    02:01 A benign mole usually face the same size for a long period of time, however cancerous moles start to evolve or change over time.

    02:11 So if you notice a mole that is starting to look different over time, you should get it checked out.

    02:20 So something else that can happen to the skin is burns.

    02:23 A burn causes tissue damage due to excessive heat, electricity radioactive activity or corrosive chemicals that break down the proteins in the skin cells.

    02:37 We grade burns based on their severity.

    02:41 A first degree burn such as a sunburn is only going to affect the most superficial layer of the skin or the epidermis.

    02:50 In a second degree burn, we are now affecting both the epidermal layer as well as the dermal layer of the skin.

    02:58 Finally, in a third degree burn, we've affected both the epidermal layer, the dermal layer, and gone all the way through the subcutaneous layer.

    03:08 This is the most of the most severe of the three burns.

    03:12 So how do we determine how much of the body is burned when you have a severe burn? For this we use the rule of nines.

    03:21 The rules of nines basically divides up the body into different percentages based on a factor of 9 with the exception of the genitals which is about 1%.

    03:34 The final disorder that we will discuss today are pressure ulcers.

    03:38 With age, there is an increased susceptibility to pressure ulcers especially for those who are bedridden.

    03:46 This is why they are also sometimes referred to as bed sores.

    03:50 With this disorder, shedding of the epithelium is caused by a deficiency of blood flow to the tissue.

    03:58 And from there, this creates this ulcer or hole in the skin.

    About the Lecture

    The lecture Skin Cancer, Burns and Pressure Ulcers (Nursing) by Jasmine Clark is from the course Integumentary System – Physiology (Nursing).

    Included Quiz Questions

    1. Asymmetry
    2. Borders
    3. Color
    4. Diameter
    5. Location
    1. Basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and malignant melanoma
    2. Basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and benign melanoma
    3. Basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and adenocarcinoma
    4. Basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and renal cell carcinoma

    Author of lecture Skin Cancer, Burns and Pressure Ulcers (Nursing)

     Jasmine Clark

    Jasmine Clark

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    Great lecture, even for medical students!
    By Loredana O. on 04. June 2020 for Skin Cancer, Burns and Pressure Ulcers (Nursing)

    She has a wonderful voice. It helps me to focus and makes me want to learn more