Okay. Now, let’s talk
Schizophrenia is a mental
disorder that’s characterized by
abnormal social behavior and
failure to understand reality.
So, this is one of those
disorders that is fairly,
I don’t want to say that it’s, you
know, more important than others,
but it’s more I would say
traumatic from the others.
Because when you’re expressing
with schizophrenic symptoms,
it’s a removal from reality.
So you don’t know what’s real and you don’t
know what’s fake and that can be very,
you know, for a, you know, a
to experience that and see
that, it’s kind of scary.
So, symptoms of this are
classified in two bins.
We can have positive symptoms
and negative symptoms.
Positive is where your adding
something to the equation.
So you’re seeing
something that wasn’t --
that’s not there versus negative which
is a removal or a deficit of something.
So, we’ll take a look at this in
a little bit more detail here.
So, positive symptoms can
include things like delusions.
So now you’re adding sort of
mysterious things that you’re seeing.
Disorder thoughts in the speech,
hallucinations, these are all things
that are considered positive symptoms.
Now, positive symptoms respond quite
well in medication and treatment,
so that’s a good
And it’s a good thing because some of
these things can be quite dramatic
and can really impact
your ability to function.
So it’s kind of hard to do your
job when you’re seeing, you know,
flying unicorns and
you’re seeing, you know,
you’re seeing odd things
and also delusions where
you have this disconnect between
what’s really actually happening
and what you think is
happening in your mind.
So, in this image that you’re
seeing here, you see a cat.
The cat has delusions of we’ll
say grandeur or things that,
“I am a cat. I am a wild cat.
I’m a lion.”
When reality is it’s actually just
a good old cat, but in its mind,
it believes that it
is a powerful lion.
It’s Simba walking around
in the jungle, okay?
Now, the flipside or negative symptoms,
and these are a little bit less
responsive to medication and
psychotherapy -- sorry, pharmacotherapy.
And things like removal of
normal emotional response.
So you have a flat affect.
So normally, me and you are having a discussion,
and if I’m worked up about something,
you’ll know that I’m worked up because
you can see that emotional --
expression of emotion attached to
the conversation we’re having.
And sadness and all the different things
that you would express as opposed to
an individual who has lack of affect or
flat affect might be quite monotone.
It might say things like,
“Yeah, I may have killed a man
yesterday and I also then
won a $50 million lottery.”
And there’s no emotion there and
you don’t know, you know, are you
being sarcastic or this is for real
or do you know what you’re saying.
And then also the reduced
quantity or fluency of speech.
So, they might not be saying a
lot, maybe just a few keywords.
They might be mumbling
a little bit more.
It seems very forced in the
way that they’re speaking,
and these all are then, again,
classified as negative symptoms.
So, schizophrenia refers
to a split and mental
function or reality and is
not a split in identity.
So do not get those
So, you having trouble discriminating between
reality and delusions or hallucinations,
it doesn’t mean that you
have a dual identity.
That’s its own --
that its own situation.
Schizophrenia is just an inability to
differentiate between reality and non-reality.
Now, five main types
Again, I’m not going to spend lots
of time going through each one.
I think you need to
appreciate the fact that
there are different
types of schizophrenia.
This is just some
sampling of some.
But for the MCAT, I think you
would need to know probably at
least understand that these fall
under types of schizophrenia.
So paranoid-type schizophrenia
is mostly hallucinations,
delusions, and usually
you’re relating to a theme.
So, there’s some consistency in the
positive symptoms that you’re experiencing.
Disorganized-type is flat or inappropriate
affect, disorganized speech, and behavior.
And like the descriptor implies,
it’s quite disorganized
as opposed to the paranoid-type
or just some consistency.
And the Catatonic-type,
immobility or hyperexcited motor
activity and it’s not influenced
by external stimulus.
So, if you have ever seen a
schizophrenic patient that seems
highly exaggerated in
how they’re moving,
and I’m flashing my
arms around, or even to
the point where they’re
seem almost frozen,
that would be catatonic-type.
Undifferentiated-type is the basic
criteria for schizophrenia.
The basic criteria are met but they
don’t fit in any of the other.
So this is a sort of catch all of those
who don’t fit in the obvious other types.
And there’s residual-type or
previously met criteria for
schizophrenia symptoms and
they’re now a little bit milder.
So, this could either be that you’re
transitioning out of the disease.
It could be that some of the treatment
that you have is starting to take shape.
based and that what surround
you is impacting it.
It’s not going to completely
absolve your schizophrenia but you
might be in a better place when
you have more support around you
and that might transition you from being
full-blown schizophrenic to residual type.
Brief psychotic disorder is at least one
psychotic symptom for less than one month.
And then the last two, we’re going to
have our schizophreniform disorder.
And this is where you display the
symptoms of schizophrenia for
one to six months and it usually
transitions to schizophrenia.
So this might be
So it’s kind of like
you start with the SPD
and then you can transition
And then there’s also schizoaffective
disorder where symptoms of schizophrenia
and you also have a major
depressive, manic or mixed episode.
So this is a combination
actually of two disorders
of schizophrenia and
then affective disorder.
So the last two are probably the most
removed from your typical schizophrenia
with schizophreniform disorder
being one that your --
it’s a gate way you’re going to
transition to schizophrenia,
and that usually happens in
at least half of the time.