Hello, how are you? Well, here's a
topic called rheumatology.
An important topic. There
is a lot to discuss, but
follow me through this and I'll make sure
that you keep your thoughts organized,
and we'll take a look at the
and where they will be properly
categorized. Let's begin.
What does this even include,
and historically, what does it encompass?
could have been part of what's known as
your collagen-vascular diseases.
You've heard of issues such as Ehlers-Danlos,
maybe Marfan's and so forth?
But now, it's been further classified into
further. For example, you've heard of
systemic lupus erythematosus or
divided into other issues,
including immune and non-immune type of it…
Now, within this, as I said, there'll
be several sub-types.
For example, we'll take a look connected
Under connected tissue diseases,
we shall, as I mentioned,
look at SLE, Sjögren, and so forth.
There's a particular category
known as seronegative,
and with seronegative, spondylarthropathies
that the RF factor,
in other words, rheumatoid factor, and I'll
give you definition of what that is exactly,
is found to be negative in these conditions.
Example, for…you heard of thoracic arthritis,
you've heard of reactive arthritis,
maybe inflammatory bowel disease,
as we shall see, moving forward.
And then, quickly, to recap, we'll
take a look at vasculitides.
Now, technically speaking, of
may come under cardiovascular.
However, because we're talking
about blood vessels,
and how it may then affect,
not only the blood vessels, but then
how that would manifest into
the presentation, let's say with Wegener,
or nowadays we call it granulomatosis
what about rheumatologists and what
kind of disease are you
in the U.S. going to encounter the most?
Well, as we get older,
I will talk to you about a very
It's wear and tear type of arthritis
Or, you've heard of a patient who,
during the holidays,
Thanksgiving, Christmas and whatnot,
may have been drinking quite
a bit of alcohol,
and the male,
in his big toe might then be
complaining of pain, gout.
We will talk about crystalline
type of arthropathies.
Or, maybe the patient got sick,
maybe bacteria infection,
such as Staph or Strep,
feels a lot of bit of pain in the knee,
a lot of swelling, maybe redness
and maybe even feels warm
upon palpation by you, the doctor.
We'll talk about septic arthritis.
Now, these rheumatologic
diseases will encompass…
Now, I need you to picture the following.
You have the skin, for example,
and technically, skin could fall
under this but, of course,
that's a separate topical
term. But the point is,
the skin, and then you have
the extracellular matrix.
And then you have the muscles.
In other words,
the material that anchor
our organs, the substances that
then anchor our muscle
is then known as the extracellular matrix.
We'll talk about components of that.
For example, you've heard of
Duchenne muscular dystrophy, or
Becker muscular dystrophy.
Under this, we'll take a look at joints
and different types of arthritis,
skin issues…a lot of times there'll
be rash manifestation.
There might be nerve issues,
Kidney issues, as we shall see.
Lung, heart, gut, and brain might be affected.
We're talking about extracellular
matrix. As I said,
an extracellular matrix is
basically the scaffolding
that allows for many of our structures
to remain stabilized.
And if this component of the extracellular
matrix are compromised,
then we'll have issues in all over the body.
Overall, our outline will be the following.
when we talk about osteoarthritis,
take a look at that suffix, "-itis."
So if you weren't paying
attention and if you just
took it for what it's worth, you would think,
"Wow, this is an inflammatory condition."
But truly, it's not. And I'll tell you why.
But it comes under non-autoimmune
activity, wear and tear.
Crystalline gout, talk about
accumulation of uric acid
in different parts of the body.
Septic, once again, has nothing
to do with autoimmune.
We'll talk about seronegative.
We'll talk about these conditions,
including psoriatic arthritis,
including our inflammatory bowel disease,
And to be seronegative means to be what?
Oh, rheumatoid factor negative.
What is a rheumatoid factor?
Because you have to know the details.
I'll tell you in a little bit. Well, why
not introduce this to you?
It is the IgM
that is in targeting the FC
region of the IgG.
That's what it's meant to be
rheumatoid factor positive.
If you're negative, that is not happening.
Then under connective tissue disease,
long little list here.
We have rheumatoid arthritis. Now, that
is going to be immune, isn't it?
SLE will be immune. Scleroderma
will be immune.
Raynaud, we'll talk about the colors
of the hand turn into.
Inflammatory type of issues and so forth.
Then under vasculitis I will touch upon…
Well, I'll divide this into large, medium, and
small vessel. For example, you've heard of
post list disease that's known as Takayasu.
Or a medium vessel,
uch as polyarteritis nodosa,
or small vessel disease.
You've heard of thromboangiitis obliterans.
And then we'll talk about those
conditions in great detail.
For example, we'll go into definitions,
go to pathogenesis,
signs and symptoms and diagnosis,
and how do you to manage
these conditions, respectively.