So in this lecture, we have learned all
about the anatomy and physiology of the heart.
We've learned that the heart is a four-chambered organ
that pumps deoxygenated blood to the lungs for oxygenation
and oxygenated blood to the body's tissues so that
they can use the oxygen for metabolic purposes.
The chambers of the heart are
separated by valves that prevent backflow.
There are four total valves of the
heart including two atrioventricular valves
between the atria and ventricles of
the heart and two semilunar valves
which separate the ventricles
from the large arteries and veins.
There are three types of circulation
that the heart goes through.
You have the pulmonary circulation which is going to go
to the lungs in order to oxygenate deoxygenated blood,
systemic circulation which sends
oxygenated blood to the remainder of the body
and coronary circulation which is
going to provide the heart cells itself
with oxygenated blood so
that it can perform work as well.
The muscles of the heart also referred to
as the myocardium are going to be composed
of nucleated striated cells that are
connected by desmosomes and gap junctions
so that the heart can function as
one syncytium or one single cell.
The pumping of the heart involves autorhythmic cells
that can be found at different nodes in the heart.
These cells are unique in that they do not
require nervous system stimulation for activity.
The contraction of the chambers
of the heart is referred to as systole
and relaxation of the heart is
going to be referred to as diastole.
We measure cardiac output by looking at the stroke
volume of the heart, as well as the heart rate.
And finally, we are able to measure
heart activity using electrocardiography
which uses or which has characteristic wave
patterns that are associated with the polarization
and depolarization of the
different chambers in the heart.
And this concludes our lecture on the anatomy and
physiology of the heart.
Thank you for listening.