Parkinson's Disease

by Carlo Raj, MD

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    Here, we’ll take a look at degenerative disease of the basal ganglia. And by definition, if the basal ganglia has been affected, you can expect there to be movement disorders including rigidity, abnormal posturing or even chorea, all items that we’ve talked about prior. The diseases that are associated with degenerative disease of the basal ganglia include obvious parkinsonism, progressive supranuclear palsy, corticobasal degeneration. We’ll talk about multiple systemic type of atrophies and then we’ll end by looking at our postencephalitic type of parkinsonism. We’ll begin our discussion of degenerative diseases of the basal ganglia by looking at Parkinsonism. The definition of which will be a clinical syndrome characterized by diminished facial expression, and by that we mean a masked facies. Expressionless. Next, it might be stooped posturing and if you take a look at the hands, there’s resting tremor and there is this pill-rolling that’s taking place. Literally, it looks like they’re pill-rolling. Now, let’s talk about this gait. Well, at first, the gait here, the feet feel as though for the patient that the feet are stuck in cement or quicksand. So therefore, very difficult to start the initial step or gait. Once the gait has now begun or commenced, then it’s almost like the patient is now taking these petite march or a little march. Little steps to gain, to gain momentum. So you have these little steps that are being taken by the patient, which are now in accelerated fashion. We call this a shuffling gait. We call this a Parkinson gait and this is then known as your festinating gait. And we talked about the pill-rolling and we talked about the posture. Now, parkinsonism, remember that it’s the dopamine for whatever reason that is now being diminished. And it will be a damage that’s taking...

    About the Lecture

    The lecture Parkinson's Disease by Carlo Raj, MD is from the course Movement Disorders. It contains the following chapters:

    • Degenerative Diseases of the Basal Ganglia
    • Parkinsonism

    Included Quiz Questions

    1. Progressively shortened and accelerated steps.
    2. Hallucinations.
    3. Psychosis
    4. Agitation and aggressiveness
    5. Vision changes.
    1. Substantia nigra and MPTP.
    2. Amygdala and cyanide.
    3. Hippocampus and carbon-monoxide.
    4. Frontal lobe and MPTP.
    5. Substantia nigra and lead.
    1. Lewy Body Dementia and hallucinations.
    2. Lewy Body Dementia and pill rolling tremor.
    3. Parkinson's Disease and hallucinations.
    4. Lewy body Dementia and festinant gait.
    5. Schizophrenia and rigidity.
    1. Cognitive and behavioral side effects.
    2. Motor side effects.
    3. A potential fall.
    4. Hypotension.
    5. Dizziness.
    1. Bradykinesia and cogwheel rigidity.
    2. Bradykinesia and myoclonus.
    3. Dystonia and cogwheel rigidity.
    4. Dystonia and clasp-knife rigidity.
    5. Bradykinesia and clasp-knife rigidity.

    Author of lecture Parkinson's Disease

     Carlo Raj, MD

    Carlo Raj, MD

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