To be able to talk through
where these occur,
there are two different kinds
of approaches we could take.
The first approach is the
So for this, you take in
food through the mouth,
you’ll swallow it
into the esophagus.
It will go into the stomach and then
small intestine, large intestine,
then out through the rectum if you
didn’t utilize it or absorb it.
And I like this anatomical
it gives a very nice link
through the anatomy.
But in terms of function, I
think it’s better to start
thinking about this in terms of
an engineering point of view.
So let’s take a look at
what that might look like.
So this engineering tube viewpoint
sets up this type of system
in kind of a linear format.
We’ll start off with some thing like
the teeth, which will chop up food.
We will end up adding
liquid and adding mucus
to lubricate the system and to get the
food stuff along the passageways.
You will have a portion of it that
helps blend or grind up the food
as well as provide the acid for undergoing
certain types of protein denaturation.
We’ll have a certain portion of this
engineering tube that will supply detergent.
A place in which all those
reactions can take place.
And then we’ll have a specific
component that will add then enzymes
to go undergo a lot of the different
But of course, we need to have
a spot in which we can absorb
all of these particular
macro and micronutrients.
Finally, to be able to save water, we need
to have a place where we can remove water
and we can form pellets
so that of course, we can get rid of
certain things that aren’t necessary.
So this is this engineering
that we’re going to
revisit a number of times
as we introduce the various components
of the gastrointestinal system.
And I think this functional
approach will really help land
what kind of things happen at what spot.
Okay, let’s start linking the two
and that is the engineering and
the anatomical viewpoints.
Let’s start off with where
this detergent is added from.
And that is done from the liver
and from the gallbladder.
So the liver is going to produce
various types of substances
that are stored in the gallbladder and
then released into the small intestine.
So that’s where the
detergent is coming from.
The mouth and teeth provide this kind of
initial chopping and grinding of food.
And why that’s so important is
you’re taking large particles,
making them into smaller particles
so there’s more surface area
available to undergo digestion.
But remember to be able to
get food down the GI system,
we need to make sure that
it has water added to it
and it also is lubricated and that’s
done with the salivary glands.
Finally, the stomach is the place
in which we’re going to help
blend and grind food
a little bit more.
And this is where acid
is added to the system.
Finally, it’s your pancreas that supplies
the enzymes to the small intestine
and these enzymes include everything from
those involved with carbohydrates,
fats, and proteins.
The small intestine involves the
area in which most all of the action
is taking place for
digestion and absorption.
So these are where the
enzymes are acting on
and where you break these large
molecules down into small molecules,
so that you can absorb them.
Finally, the large intestine
is where we remove some water.
And then finally, the rectum
is of course where we control
what is released from the