Ovarian Cycle: Follicular and Luteal Phase (Nursing)

by Jasmine Clark, PhD

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    00:00 During the follicular phase several vesicular follicles are stimulated to grow.

    00:07 This is triggered by rising levels of the anterior pituitary hormone follicle-stimulating hormone.

    00:17 Follicle-stimulating hormone levels drop around the middle of the follicular phase.

    00:23 This causes only one of the antral follicles or the dominant follicle to be selected to continue on.

    00:32 However, this process is still a little understudied and we're still learning about how exactly the dominant follicle is chosen.

    00:43 The primary oocyte in this dominant follicle will complete meiosis 1 to form the secondary oocyte and polar body.

    00:53 The granulosa cells then send a signal to the ocoyte causing it to stop at metaphase 2.

    01:03 So the next event that happens after the follicular phase is ovulation.

    01:10 During ovulation, rising levels of the anterior pituitary hormone luteinizing hormone, cause the ovary wall to rupture.

    01:20 This causes the expelling or spitting out of that secondary oocyte with its corona radiata to the peritoneal cavity.

    01:32 In some women are some females they can actually feel this event happening.

    01:38 This is referred to as mittleschmerz.

    01:43 And about 1 to 2 percent of ovulations more than one secondary oocyte is going to be released if it is fertilized, it will result in fraternal twins.

    01:57 The production of identical twins is a little different and that it actually results from the fertilization of 1 oocyte and then the separation of daughter cells.

    02:08 So the 1 oocyte will split into two daughter cells.

    02:14 So after ovulation, we have the second phase of the ovarian cycle the luteal phase.

    02:22 This happens when the ruptured follicle collapses and the antrum begins to fill with clotted blood.

    02:31 Because of this it is now referred to as the corpus hemorrhagium, and will eventually be absorbed.

    02:39 The remaining granulosa cells and internal thecal cells will enlarge to form a structure known as the corpus luteum.

    02:49 The corpus luteum is actually very important as it's going to secrete progesterone and some estrogen.

    02:59 So during the luteal phase if no pregnancy occurs, the corpus luteum will eventually degenerate into what's known as the corpus albicans which translates to scar.

    03:12 This takes about 10 days.

    03:16 In the luteal lytic or ischemic phase, that lasts about two to three days of the luteal phase the endometrium inside of the uterus also begins to erode.

    03:29 If pregnancy does occur the corpus luteum does not degenerate and instead begins to produce hormones that will sustain pregnancy until the placenta is able to take over.

    03:43 So in this case, you'll have your corpus luteum for about three months instead of just 10 days.

    About the Lecture

    The lecture Ovarian Cycle: Follicular and Luteal Phase (Nursing) by Jasmine Clark, PhD is from the course Female Reproductive System – Physiology (Nursing).

    Included Quiz Questions

    1. The luteal phase
    2. The follicular phase
    3. The ovulation phase
    4. The oogenesis phase
    1. A twinge of pain sometimes felt at ovulation by some women
    2. When rising levels of LH cause the ovary wall to rupture and the primary oocyte is expelled
    3. The process by which the dominant follicle is selected to continue developing
    4. Abdominal discomfort sometimes felt by women when the sperm fertilizes the oocyte
    1. The corpus luteum degenerates into the corpus albicans, and the luteolytic phase occurs
    2. The corpus luteum continues to produce hormones for 3 more days until the endometrium starts to degenerate
    3. The secondary oocyte develops into the corona radiata, and it slowly degenerates
    4. The corpus luteum turns into granulosa cells, which then degenerate over 10 days
    1. Dropping levels of FSH in the middle of the follicular phase
    2. Increased levels of FSH at the beginning of the follicular phase
    3. Rising levels of FSH at the end of the follicular phase
    4. Granulosa cells sending a signal to keep just 1 follicle developing

    Author of lecture Ovarian Cycle: Follicular and Luteal Phase (Nursing)

     Jasmine Clark, PhD

    Jasmine Clark, PhD

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