Nutrition and Diets (Nursing)

by Samantha Rhea, MSN, RN

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    00:01 Welcome to the topic of nutrition.

    00:03 We're going to discuss about all of the positive aspects, that nutrition can bring to your client.

    00:09 And also different types of diets and consistencies, that you need to consider in regards to treatment of your patient.

    00:16 Now let's start off, by talking about what good nutrition does to affect the body.

    00:22 Well, first off, it helps increase blood flow to prevent disease.

    00:26 Helps increases blood flow to our brain, increases that focus and concentration and of course, provides great nutrients to the cells, to provide great energy and help stabilize our blood sugar.

    00:38 Now, don't forget about the advantages for good hair and nails, it can help strengthen those and prevent hair loss as well.

    00:47 And a really important point, is good nutrition, can help hydrate and strengthen the condition and the integrity of the skin.

    00:55 Now, many of you know who are in nursing school or who are nurses. That good nutrition helps prevent those wounds or even helps heal them in that process.

    01:04 It also can help prevent acne and infections.

    01:08 Now, good nutrition, really plays a key role in immunity to help boost that to help prevent disease prevention.

    01:16 Not to mention, that it will help again, keyword, good healthy nutrition reduces fat and cholesterol to decrease heart disease and reduce the workload of the heart.

    01:28 Now digestion, is another thing we've got to think about in regards to good nutrition.

    01:33 It can help promote good digestive health, healthy weight and disease prevention.

    01:39 Now lastly, good nutrition is key for good bones, joints and muscles to strengthen those, build healthy muscle mass and reduce inflammation.

    01:50 Now let's talk about nutritional screening, this is commonly done in many different facilities for clients to assess what their dietary needs are.

    01:59 Now, this is the process of identifying patients, who are already or at risk for malnourishment.

    02:05 A good nutritional screening, can identify many different problems, such as being overweight, underweight, if there's a significant weight loss or gain.

    02:16 Poor food choices social habits that can infect our nutrition.

    02:21 Now, the availability of food is another key piece and any potential problems with digestion that you may have.

    02:30 Now, let's take a look at different types of nutrition.

    02:33 As a nurse there's different routes that sometimes we need to use, to help maintain our patients caloric or dietary needs.

    02:41 Now the first is the oral type of nutrition which of course, is the most preferred and this is by just taking food or supplements, by mouth down the oesophagus into the digestive system, to get that good peristalsis, which is, the most ideal for consumption.

    02:59 Now, sometimes for oral consumption, we may need some supplementation, to help maybe increase protein or calories for our clients and supplements can be used, for specialized dietary needs.

    03:13 Now, there are several instances where maybe the patient can't use the most preferred route, such as, oral nutrition, here's a great example of this.

    03:22 Maybe a patient for example can't swallow effectively, going into the patient's lungs, which they can aspirate.

    03:29 Of course, this is a patient safety issue and dangerous.

    03:33 Therefore, sometimes we have to bypass the oral route and go for example using tube feedings.

    03:40 Now, we can support their nutrition using liquid feedings, that supply directly to the gastric region.

    03:46 Through maybe the nasal gastric tube, an oral gastric tube or a peg tube which goes directly into the stomach.

    03:55 Now we can also use IV fluids to help support hydration and electrolytes, but again, this is more of a short-term therapy and don't forget we also have something called, “TPN.” Otherwise known as, “Total Parenteral Nutrition.” Now, this is a little bit longer term, than IV fluids, it's nutritional therapy that has lipids, also for energy, different hydration electrolytes.

    04:22 Now, let's take a look at some specialized diets, we'll just talk about these briefly.

    04:27 Note, that there's special diets for specific disease processes.

    04:31 For example, there's a renal diet if a patient has kidney disease.

    04:35 A diabetic diet for diabetics of course.

    04:38 There's low sodium diets, that we use many times for cardiac patients.

    04:44 And of course if your patient's malnourished, sometimes we may need a high calorie or a high protein diet.

    04:51 Also if a patient has delayed wound healing, we may also use a high calorie or high protein diet.

    04:58 Now, due to swallowing difficulties or maybe the patient is preparing for surgery.

    05:02 There are certain diets for specific consistencies, such as, a liquid diet. Which also if the patient has any inflammatory bowel issues for example we may use that type of diet.

    05:15 There's surgical soft diets, mixed consistencies, sometimes we may need to ground up the patient's food for swallowing.

    05:23 We may need to even chop up the food and of course there's a regular consistency diet.

    05:29 Now, let's talk about some specific diet types.

    05:33 “NPO,” is one that you're going to commonly hear as a nurse, otherwise known as, “Nothing By Mouth.” This absolutely means we don't want anything to eat or drink down the patient's oral route.

    05:45 Now, just be conscious as a nurse because sometimes, the physician's order may say, “NPO” or “Nothing by mouth,” except for meds.

    05:54 So if you're going to give medications and you see the order for NPO, make sure you look at the order and clarify.

    06:01 Next, don't forget there's a clear liquid diet.

    06:04 This is really helpful after the patient's been in NPO, then maybe they're arousing from anaesthesia.

    06:11 We may use that type of diet so the patient doesn't get nauseated.

    06:15 This can include water, tea, clear soda, even gelatine, think about it, it’s kind of clear or broth.

    06:23 Now, if the patient tolerates that especially post-surgery or if they've had any gastric issues, we can then advance them to a full liquid diet.

    06:32 Now, this is going to have a little bit more substance to it, a little bit more calories but still very easily digestible.

    06:39 So this is going to include things like fruit or veggie juices, some broths, we can even use strained puréed vegetable soups, cream based soups, milk, coffee, milkshakes, pudding, all some of those good stuff.

    06:55 Don't forget as well, that if they can tolerate the full liquid diet, we can also use like a soft diet.

    07:00 Again still easily digestible but got a little bit more bulk to it.

    07:05 So this can include something like eggs or mashed potatoes, even baked fish, soft fruits well-cooked veggies, notice not raw here.

    07:14 Something that's easily digestible for the patient.

    07:17 Now, occasionally you may see the order for a puréed diet, this is truly what it sounds like, a fully blenderized food.

    07:26 Now, it's a thicker liquid it's important here, that you don't have any chunks or solid materials because this could be an aspiration risk for your patient.

    About the Lecture

    The lecture Nutrition and Diets (Nursing) by Samantha Rhea, MSN, RN is from the course Nutrition, Health Promotion and Maintenance (Nursing).

    Included Quiz Questions

    1. Low sodium
    2. Renal
    3. High protein
    4. High caloric
    1. Increases focus and concentration
    2. Provides nutrients to the cells
    3. Stabilizes the blood sugar
    4. Decreases blood flow in the brain
    5. Increases cholesterol levels
    1. Tea
    2. Gelatin
    3. Clear soda
    4. Milk
    5. Ice cream
    1. “A client with delayed wound healing may be prescribed a high-calorie diet.”
    2. “If a client is NPO that means they are not allowed to have any food by mouth, just liquids.”
    3. “Total Parenteral Nutrition is an example of tube feeding.”
    4. “Nutritional screening is only for identifying if a client has gained or lost weight.”

    Author of lecture Nutrition and Diets (Nursing)

     Samantha Rhea, MSN, RN

    Samantha Rhea, MSN, RN

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