Welcome to the topic of nutrition.
We're going to discuss about
all of the positive aspects,
that nutrition can bring to your client.
And also different types
of diets and consistencies,
that you need to consider in regards
to treatment of your patient.
Now let's start off, by talking about what
good nutrition does to affect the body.
Well, first off, it helps increase
blood flow to prevent disease.
Helps increases blood flow to our brain,
increases that focus and concentration
and of course, provides
great nutrients to the cells,
to provide great energy and
help stabilize our blood sugar.
Now, don't forget about the
advantages for good hair and nails,
it can help strengthen those
and prevent hair loss as well.
And a really important point, is good nutrition,
can help hydrate and strengthen the
condition and the integrity of the skin.
Now, many of you know who are in nursing school
or who are nurses. That good
nutrition helps prevent those wounds
or even helps heal them in that process.
It also can help prevent acne and infections.
Now, good nutrition, really
plays a key role in immunity
to help boost that to help
prevent disease prevention.
Not to mention, that it will help
again, keyword, good healthy nutrition
reduces fat and cholesterol
to decrease heart disease
and reduce the workload of the heart.
Now digestion, is another
thing we've got to think about
in regards to good nutrition.
It can help promote good
digestive health, healthy weight
and disease prevention.
Now lastly, good nutrition is key
for good bones, joints and muscles
to strengthen those, build healthy
muscle mass and reduce inflammation.
Now let's talk about nutritional screening,
this is commonly done in many different facilities
for clients to assess what
their dietary needs are.
Now, this is the process of identifying patients,
who are already or at risk for malnourishment.
A good nutritional screening, can
identify many different problems,
such as being overweight, underweight,
if there's a significant weight loss or gain.
Poor food choices social habits
that can infect our nutrition.
Now, the availability of food is another key piece
and any potential problems with
digestion that you may have.
Now, let's take a look at
different types of nutrition.
As a nurse there's different routes
that sometimes we need to use,
to help maintain our patients
caloric or dietary needs.
Now the first is the oral type
of nutrition which of course,
is the most preferred and this is
by just taking food or supplements,
by mouth down the oesophagus
into the digestive system,
to get that good peristalsis, which
is, the most ideal for consumption.
Now, sometimes for oral consumption,
we may need some supplementation,
to help maybe increase protein
or calories for our clients
and supplements can be used,
for specialized dietary needs.
Now, there are several instances
where maybe the patient
can't use the most preferred route,
such as, oral nutrition,
here's a great example of this.
Maybe a patient for example
can't swallow effectively,
going into the patient's
lungs, which they can aspirate.
Of course, this is a patient
safety issue and dangerous.
Therefore, sometimes we have
to bypass the oral route
and go for example using tube feedings.
Now, we can support their
nutrition using liquid feedings,
that supply directly to the gastric region.
Through maybe the nasal gastric
tube, an oral gastric tube
or a peg tube which goes
directly into the stomach.
Now we can also use IV fluids
to help support hydration
and electrolytes, but again, this
is more of a short-term therapy
and don't forget we also
have something called, “TPN.”
Otherwise known as, “Total Parenteral Nutrition.”
Now, this is a little bit
longer term, than IV fluids,
it's nutritional therapy that
has lipids, also for energy,
different hydration electrolytes.
Now, let's take a look at some specialized diets,
we'll just talk about these briefly.
Note, that there's special diets
for specific disease processes.
For example, there's a renal diet
if a patient has kidney disease.
A diabetic diet for diabetics of course.
There's low sodium diets, that we
use many times for cardiac patients.
And of course if your patient's malnourished,
sometimes we may need a high
calorie or a high protein diet.
Also if a patient has delayed wound healing,
we may also use a high
calorie or high protein diet.
Now, due to swallowing
difficulties or maybe the patient
is preparing for surgery.
There are certain diets
for specific consistencies,
such as, a liquid diet. Which
also if the patient has any
inflammatory bowel issues for
example we may use that type of diet.
There's surgical soft diets, mixed consistencies,
sometimes we may need to ground up
the patient's food for swallowing.
We may need to even chop up the food
and of course there's a regular consistency diet.
Now, let's talk about some specific diet types.
“NPO,” is one that you're going
to commonly hear as a nurse,
otherwise known as, “Nothing By Mouth.”
This absolutely means we don't want anything
to eat or drink down the patient's oral route.
Now, just be conscious as
a nurse because sometimes,
the physician's order may say, “NPO”
or “Nothing by mouth,” except for meds.
So if you're going to give medications
and you see the order for NPO,
make sure you look at the order
Next, don't forget there's a clear liquid diet.
This is really helpful after
the patient's been in NPO,
then maybe they're arousing from anaesthesia.
We may use that type of diet so
the patient doesn't get nauseated.
This can include water, tea,
clear soda, even gelatine,
think about it, it’s kind of clear or broth.
Now, if the patient tolerates
that especially post-surgery
or if they've had any gastric issues, we
can then advance them to a full liquid diet.
Now, this is going to have a
little bit more substance to it,
a little bit more calories but
still very easily digestible.
So this is going to include things
like fruit or veggie juices,
some broths, we can even use
strained puréed vegetable soups,
cream based soups, milk,
coffee, milkshakes, pudding,
all some of those good stuff.
Don't forget as well, that if they
can tolerate the full liquid diet,
we can also use like a soft diet.
Again still easily digestible but
got a little bit more bulk to it.
So this can include something
like eggs or mashed potatoes,
even baked fish, soft fruits well-cooked veggies,
notice not raw here.
Something that's easily
digestible for the patient.
Now, occasionally you may see
the order for a puréed diet,
this is truly what it sounds like,
a fully blenderized food.
Now, it's a thicker liquid it's important here,
that you don't have any chunks or solid materials
because this could be an
aspiration risk for your patient.