Welcome to the foundations
of nursing practice today.
We're going to take a glimpse at some of those nursing
historical giants that helped shape our profession.
We're also going to take a look at
some characteristics of today's nurse.
So the first nursing historical giant, I want
you to note this name: Florence Nightingale.
You're going to hear this a
lot throughout your education.
Now she's otherwise known
as the lady with the lamp.
Now she got this name because she's a British
nurse who carried a lamp making rounds on soldiers
during the Crimean War.
She's also known for greatly improving
sanitary conditions for these soldiers,
which led to much better outcomes.
Now she's also known as
the founder of modern nursing,
who established St. Thomas Hospital and the
Nightingale Training School for nurses in 1860.
Now, once you come to
completion of your nursing school,
you may be asked to take the Florence
Nightingale nursing pledge in her honor,
much like the Hippocratic
oath that physicians take.
Now, let's take a look
at the next nursing giant.
This is named Clara Barton.
She established our American Red Cross in
1881, and she actually served as president until 1904.
Now she's got another nickname
of "Angel of the Battlefield".
Now this is due to providing relief of services
and finding missing soldiers during the Civil War.
Now the interesting thing about Clara Barton,
she was self-taught, and she had no formal training.
Next, let's talk about Miss Dorothea Dix.
She was a pioneer and an advocate who
advocated on behalf of the better treatment
of mentally-ill patients.
She had much important work in the
Civil War, implementing different programs
to train nurses to serve the sick.
Next up, we have Miss Mary Mahoney.
She was the first
African American nurse to be trained
and graduated from an
American School of Nursing.
Now she's a big name because she helped create
the National Association of Colored Graduate Nurses,
otherwise known as the NACGN.
She was also inducted into the
American Nursing Association Hall of Fame
and the National Women's Hall of Fame.
Now let's take a look at this
interesting character here on this horse.
Her name is Mary Breckinridge, and
she founded the Frontier Nursing Services.
Now she was actually an American nursing midwife.
So she served some of the most rural and
poor areas in Kentucky in the United States.
Now she's here in this picture on
horseback because many times,
she actually had to ride on horseback to get to
those really isolated areas to serve her patients.
Now, her Frontier Nursing Service helped
to greatly reduce maternal mortality rate.
Now let's take a look at this last
nursing giant, Miss Lillian Wald.
She helped create the Visiting
Nursing Service of New York
to bring affordable health
care to her community.
Now in 1894, Miss Lillian Wald,
and as some will know Mary Brewster
started the Henry Street Settlement House.
Now this was an organization dedicated
to providing public health services.
She's really noticed of her focus on public health
to those in the poor and middle class communities.
And she was throughout her career an advocate
for women's, children's, immigrants and labor rights.
Now, let's shift to nursing today and those
many influences that affect our practice.
One of those key influences is here on the
bottom of this image is nursing shortages.
As you can imagine, this is a great
concern for many areas of healthcare.
Now, one of those with a nursing
shortage can be of course, patient safety.
Now, if we don't have enough nurses
to care for those who are critically ill,
again, patient safety is
an issue, quality is an issue.
And as you can imagine, turnover
rates are high with a nursing shortage.
The other thing to consider is the
cost of the health care for the patient.
Now, if many patients have to choose
between food, water, clothing, for example,
versus the cost of health care,
well many times they're going to
choose those needs of daily living.
So this as you can imagine, can affect
compliance with treatment for those patients
who have severe chronic conditions.
Now next, let's talk about healthcare reform.
So sometimes this can be a positive nursing
influence because this can broaden the population
of who can have coverage
and also receive treatment.
Now as a nurse, it's really important to
think about the demographics of your patients.
Now, age, sex, religion, for example,
can all affect the treatment decisions
and what's the best choices for your patient.
Now you've also got to think
about especially where you reside,
there's many underserved populations
that are there that we have to consider
in the healthcare facilities.
Now, there's a lot of challenges
for those underserved populations.
Many times there's challenges
for them just to get basic care.
Now, if we're not getting that preventative
care, they can come to the hospitals or facilities
with severe exacerbated conditions
that are far more advanced to treat.
And lastly, don't forget about
changes in healthcare delivery.
This has been a huge influence
today on nursing practice.
An example of this is telehealth,
for example, or telemedicine.
Now, as you can imagine, with
the changes of the world many times,
access to health care is so important and
we've improved these avenues on how we get that.
So telemedicine, what we mean by this is
a physician can connect over the computer
through different rural areas
and different populations.
That way they get the best treatment for them.
Let's take a look at what today's nurse
looks like regarding those education pathways.
So when you see these numbers on the bottom, these
are the years or about how long each program takes.
So let's start with the first bar on the graph.
This is the one called Licensed
Practical Nursing Certificate or LPN.
So just know with an LPN, their
scope of practice is more narrow
and they are supervised by a registered nurse.
Now the next bar on the graph, as you
can see is the associate's degree nurse,
which is the entry level
for the Registered Nurse.
Again, it takes an associate's degree for you
to achieve your RN once you pass the NCLEX.
And just remember that the
RN can supervise the LPN.
And this takes about two years for this program.
Now once you become an RN, you can choose
as well to go into the baccalaureate degree.
This program takes about four years and this
is expanded on the Registered Nurse curriculum
to include things like social sciences,
humanities, and nursing theory, for example.
Now, if you decide once you're an
RN to advance your degree even further,
you can achieve a master's
degree and the program takes
once you've gotten your
baccalaureate to about 2-3 years.
Now you can decide to specialize in things like nursing
education, or advanced practice Registered Nursing.
And lastly here, you see the doctoral degree.
This can take anywhere from
about 2-7 years for this program.
Now this is a doctoral degree
in nursing and it could be either
a doctoral in nursing practice or a PhD.