by Georgina Cornwall, PhD

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    00:01 In this lecture, I’d like to introduce you to chromosomal disorders. It's the first of three lectures.

    00:08 We’ll be discussing nondisjunction and autosomal polyploidies. To begin with, let’s take a quick review of chromosome structure and how we talk about each of the pieces of the chromosome. That will give us a little orientation to where some of these disorders are located. To start with, we speak about chromosomes based on the location of the centromeres. Here, we have a submetacentric. We call it meta, it means middle.

    00:38 So, a metacentric chromosome has the centromeres right in the middle. It’s hard to talk about those because they don’t have a long arm or a short arm. In general, we discuss chromosomes by thinking about the long arm versus the short arm. We call the short arm p and the long arm q. Then the locations of various disorders along a chromosome will be discussed relative to the positioning on the q arm or the p arm.

    01:07 So, a metacentric chromosome again has the centromeres right slap bang in the middle.

    01:12 An acrocentric chromosome, I think of acrobat flying through the sky, the centromeres are slightly further away from the center or further away from the ground. Then telocentric, well, we know the telomeres are right at the end. So, telocentric chromosomes have the centromeres right in the telomeric region.

    01:34 Now that we have an orientation to how we locate things on chromosomes, those will become useful as we move through the chromosomal disorders’ lectures. Moving now on to looking at chromosomal disorders in general or chromosomal abnormalities, they have a frequency of about 1 in 154 births, that’s live births. Now, keep in mind that 40% to 50% of chromosomal abnormalities result in spontaneous miscarriages. That’s because our body has a whole system of checks and balances to make sure that the developing embryo is in a healthy state before it goes on. Now, this can become very important when discussing reproductive health and such and genetic counselling with patients because obviously, dealing with a miscarriage is quite difficult for a family. Discussing the fact that our bodies have this system of checks and balances in place to make sure that we have a healthy conceptus often can help alleviate some of that stress. Now, we can divide our chromosomal abnormalities into two basic classes. The first of which are aneuploidies. Aneuploidies have varying number of chromosomes, technically zero. But we’ll look at how these aneuploidies play out. Another term we might use is polyploidies for additional chromosomes. We’ll spend some time in this lecture looking at how aneuploidies come about or polyploidies come about. Specifically, we’ll explore Down syndrome in quite a lot of detail. The other category or class of chromosomal abnormalities are structural abnormalities.

    03:32 Again, these are where we might see inversions or deletions or breaks on a smaller scale.

    03:40 There’s a partial chunk of chromosome that has been changed. You can see the frequencies of each of those here. I don’t know that it’s particularly important for you to memorize those frequencies but just getting an idea of actually how frequent they are. If you think overall, 1 in 154 births, that’s fairly frequent, 0.65% of conceptions could have some chromosomal abnormality.

    04:11 Let’s move on now and look at how aneuploidies result. Again, thinking back to meiosis in which our sperm and eggs are created. We have two, we will just examine just two chromosomes.

    04:30 We’ve got a homologous pair that are aligned during meiosis I. That homologous pair separates during meiosis I, at least they should. In this case, they do separate. However, during meiosis II, this image is showing that one of the products of meiosis I has appropriate segregation at meiosis II.

    04:56 However, the other does not which results in one cell having two chromosomes, so it’s actually two sister chromatids and the other having none. So the products of these, if they’re fertilized, will end up in zygotes that are either correct, properly diploid or you could have a triploid in the case where the product of meiosis II ended up with two chromosomes in the cell or a monoploid where we saw no chromosomes in that cell and the sperm brings it in. Now, let’s imagine we’re just dealing with chromosome 21 here. We might have a triploid or trisomy 21 or a monosomy. Now, the monosomy tends not to survive. Again, recall we talked about there being the perfect amount of gene product.

    05:56 In the Goldilocks principle, we have a large bowl. There's too much gene product, it doesn’t work out.

    06:02 Too little gene product doesn’t work out. But the perfect amount of gene product is what we’re looking for.

    06:08 It turns out that triploidy is one of the aneuplodies of chromosome 21. It’s one of the few that can actually persist until birth and survive through life for an extended period of time.

    06:22 Now, the other option is that meiosis I is where we see the nondisjunction, the nonseparation or nonsegregation of chromosomes. This is where the homologous pair doesn’t segregate.

    06:35 So, we see that two products could end up having two chromosomes, two sister chromatids that are the same. When we see fertilization, we have the same thing happen. We end up with two triploid cells or two monoploid cells. Again, the triploid in certain conditions can persist.

    06:56 Now, keep in mind that these graphics are showing specifically the oocyte development.

    07:02 But the same thing could happen during spermatocyte development. So, the sperm could be aneuploid or polyploid. In which case, we could see even a completely aneuploid, an embryo completely void of chromosome 21, let’s say we’re talking about that, or you could see that the egg comes in, the ovum comes in with one chromosome as it should and the sperm brings two.

    07:31 So, we could develop triploidy in that way. Now, it tends to be much more common in the oocyte development. Part of the reasoning for that is suggested that because the oocytes are stalled after meiosis I as a female baby is born. So very early in development, a female is born with all of her eggs, right? So, spermatocytes are developed throughout men’s life.

    08:09 So, nondisjunction is less likely event. That’s just one of the hypotheses.

    08:16 There are other ones but that's one of the leading hypotheses in that area.

    About the Lecture

    The lecture Nondisjunction by Georgina Cornwall, PhD is from the course Chromosomal Disorders.

    Included Quiz Questions

    1. Subacrocentric
    2. Submetacentric
    3. Metacentric
    4. Acrocentric
    5. Telocentric
    1. Slightly offset from the center of the chromosome
    2. Exactly in the middle of the chromosome
    3. Severely offset from the center of the chromosome
    4. At the very end of the chromosome
    5. Throughout the entire length of the chromosome
    1. Spontaneous abortion
    2. Birth of live normal baby
    3. Birth of live deformed baby
    4. Stillborn baby
    5. Birth of low weight baby
    1. Homologous chromosomes fail to separate properly during meiosis I.
    2. Homologous chromosomes fail to separate properly during meiosis II.
    3. Sister chromatids fail to separate properly during meiosis I.
    4. Homologous chromosomes fail to separate properly during mitosis.
    5. Sister chromatids fail to separate properly during mitosis.
    1. A female has all her oocytes stalled in meiosis I at birth and has a limited supply throughout her life.
    2. Females are weaker than males, and hence, the oocytes are more prone to non-disjunction than sperms.
    3. Oocytes are larger than sperms, making them more susceptible to environmental damage.
    4. Oocytes are formed rapidly, leading to more chances of error during formation.
    5. Only one oocyte gets a chance to ovulate each month, while many sperms are produced regularly.

    Author of lecture Nondisjunction

     Georgina Cornwall, PhD

    Georgina Cornwall, PhD

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