So to conclude our lecture on the nervous system,
recall that the nervous system is responsible for receiving signals from
and sending signals to the rest of the body.
It is divided into the central nervous system which contains the brain and the spinal chord
and the peripheral nervous system which contains all the nerves that radiate from the central nervous system.
The peripheral nervous system is further subdivided into the somatic nervous system
and the autonomic nervous system.
There are two main cell types found in our nervous system: the neurons and the neuroglial cells.
Neurons are electrically excitable cells whose membrane potential allow for the propagation of nerve impulses.
Neuroglial cells are supporting cells of the nervous system and are not electrically excitable.
These include astrocytes, ependymal cells, microglia, oligodendrocytes, Schwann cells, and satellite cells.
Nerve impulses require the formation of action potentials across the membrane.
This occurs through the depolarization of the membrane potential.
Impulses can be sent from one neuron to another at a location known as the synapse.
Also, impulses are sent from a neuron to a muscle fiber
across the synapse known as the neuromuscular junction.
Finally, neurotransmitters are the chemicals that are released at the synapse.
Upon binding to the postsynaptic neuron, they can induce an inhibitory postsynaptic potential or IPSP,
or an excitatory postsynaptic potential or EPSP.
This concludes our lecture on the nervous system. Thank you for listening.