Now we'll cover mumps. Mumps is a highly contagious viral infection also known as 'epidemic parotitis'.
It primarily affects the salivary glands and it can be unilateral or bilateral.
It is vaccine-preventable, it can have serious complications, and there is no treatment.
So the mumps virus is a single-stranded RNA virus and humans are the only natural host for the virus.
It can affect people of any age. In the United States,
between a few hundred and a few thousand cases occur every year.
So let's look at the history. It was mentioned by Hippocrates in his Of the Epidemics he wrote in 400 BC.
It's been described scientifically in 1790 by a British physician, Dr. Robert Hamilton
and it's a medically significant disease among armies in World War I and in World War II.
Here you see the maximum number of people on average that can be infected by one sick person
and you'll see a patient with mumps can infect 10 new people. It's highly contagious.
It's transmitted by droplets including saliva, nasal secretions, coughing, sneezing,
laughing or talking, or direct contact with an infected person or fomite
which includes non-living items such as utensils, cups, or surfaces.
This is going to primarily affect the salivary glands called the parotid glands
and you'll see on the right, parotitis.
This is inflammation of the parotid glands, right?
-Itis, inflammation of the parotid glands, and there are infectious and non-infectious causes.
Mumps is an infectious cause.
The incubation period is 12-25 days and a patient will be infectious from about 7 days
before the start of the symptoms to 8 days after.
So the mumps virus, this is going to target the salivary glands, the central nervous system,
the pancreas, and the testes or ovaries.
The virus is going to enter the mucosa and replicate in the upper respiratory tract.
Then it's gonna spread to the adjacent lymph nodes and to other target tissues.
Here, necrosis of the infected cells will begin.
The salivary gland ducts are gonna be lined with this necrotic epithelium
and the interstitium becomes lined with lymphocytes.