Now, let’s get into the second broad
bin of psychological disorders
that I would say is probably the
most common would be mood disorders.
So these are disorders characterized by
a persistent pattern of abnormal mood
and there’s what we’re referring
to as affect and mood.
So affect refers to an individual’s
visible emotion in the moment,
and mood is sustained internal emotion
that reflects his or her view of life.
So when we look at things like depression
that would fall under mood disorder.
This is sort of a long-term
impact on their view on life
and the emotion they’re
going to portray.
So somebody who is depressed isn’t
going to be smiling all the time
and super happy and
smelling the roses.
Emotionally speaking, the
visible emotion that you see
would be a little bit
will be a little bit more
on the negative side,
and their internal mood would be that they
feel like what’s the point of living,
I’m so unhappy,
you know, and I don’t
find happiness in the
things that I should be
finding happiness in.
So, again, we’re going to look
at five major mood disorders,
with MDD or major depressive
disorder being the first,
and this is where you have one or
more major depressive episodes.
And what we mean by major
depressive episodes are these are
fairly dramatic and impactful and that you
know, you have things like suicide ideation
or attempts at suicide or you know, in
unfortunate cases, successful suicide,
is that these are serious episodes
where you now are debating
your existence saying, “Why should
I be here? What’s the point?”
Dysthymia or dysthymic disorder is a
less intense chronic form of depression
which lasts for two years and this
could be less dramatic than MDD,
but it’s still
So this might be you
have the blues,
you’re not necessarily considering
or thinking about killing yourself,
but you’re also not happy.
So you’re in that gray zone and we
would call that dysthymic disorder.
Bipolar disorder is one that
actually includes two states.
So it’s a state of mania and depression.
So mania is when you’re overly
optimistic and you are beyond happy
and the exact opposite of, say, depression
and you would cycle
between these two states.
And you have two different types of bipolar
disorder, you have bipolar I and II,
where you can have with bipolar I at
least one manic and one mixed episode.
With bipolar II you have one
major depressive episode
and one hypomanic or no
mixed or manic state.
So, again, it’s about the fact that there
are two different types of states here,
bipolar refers to two poles, so one
being mania, one being depression.
Cyclothymic disorder is
similar to bipolar disorder
but the moods are a
little less extreme
and so we say that we have a bit
of a break between the two.
Now, dissociative disorder, this
is a psychological disorder
that involves disruptions of breakdown of
memory, awareness, identity, and perception
and it’s thought to
be caused by trauma.
So we’ll break this down into something
that’s a little bit more tangible.
Let’s say there is a, and
I eluded this before,
say, a car accident or serious trauma
and you, yourself,
can’t deal with it.
And so you disassociate yourself or
remove yourself from the situation
and you kind of tuck it away.
And we say that this kind of
happens due to self-preservation,
your mind feels that
it’s not equipped
and doesn’t have the
resources to deal with this,
so you got to remove
yourself in the situation.
So things like any violence, you
know, rape or domestic violence,
being in a fight, being
in a car accident,
being in a plane accident,
being involved in a war.
You tend to block out
things and forget things.
You see this in courtroom
dramas, where individuals
kill their loved and they say,
you know, do you remember
walking into your husband’s room and
stabbing him with an icepick 30 times.
You’re like, “No, I don’t know,
I don’t seem to recall that.”
You’re like well, how do you not recall
the icepick to the face 30 times.
That’s something I think
I would remember.
So they say that, you know,
that they were going through
a dissociative episode
and that the event was so traumatic
and they forgot it or they’ve
unconsciously decided to
put that to the side.
And with psychotherapy
and some probing,
it tends to come out and they say, “Actually,
now I do remember bits and pieces,”
and they start to deal with it.
Now, different types of
So you can see a trend
here, we’re going to talk
about one and go through a
whole bunch of options,
and again, my statement here is that
this isn’t meant to be a catchall,
this is just a sampling of some of
the possible dissociative disorders.
Dissociative amnesia is suddenly
forgetting some important personal info
related to that traumatic event,
which we kind of outlined there.
Dissociative fugue is a
patient goes on a journey
with no recall or a
personal history prior.
So again, they went and did something,
which is you know, a fairly long period
of time of doing an actual task,
like driving somewhere, dumping
a body, and coming back home
and they’re saying, “Well,
do you remember doing that?”
“Well, no, I don’t remember that at all.”
You know, or during an
attack or during a fight or
seeing something and that
whole period is removed.
disorder, again, same idea,
you want to remove yourself
from the situation
because you can’t deal what’s
presented and they do that by
creating or moving to
Depersonalization disorder is
disconnected from one’s own body,
thoughts, or emotions and
you see a theme here,
is that you’re dissociating yourself or
removing yourself or depersonalizing yourself
from a situation in one way, shape,
or form because of its intensity.
Okay. So now let’s get into
some personality disorders.
So this is a psychological
personality traits deviate
from cultural norms
and it impairs functioning and causes
distress to self or of those around you.
So we’ll get into a couple of a
PDs or personality disorders.
These are some I think
ones that you could grasp
and understand and these are
some of the more common ones.
So BPD or borderline personality
disorder is when there’s an instability
in impulse control, or mood,
or image of self and others.
So in English,
these individuals really, really
don’t quite grasp their personality
in what they’re expressing and
there’s a change in that,
and so you see that they act very odd
and that they are starting
to express behaviors
that you might not normally associate with
them saying well, that’s unlike them.
So they have trouble actually
defining their personality.
So NPD is narcissistic personality disorder
and this is when these individuals feel
like they are better than everybody else
and more than maybe some of the
proud peacocks you might know.
This is where they think that
they are so self-important
that they’re better than everybody
else to the point where they --
they shouldn’t be
around these people.
They have no empathy, so if
somebody’s hurt or needs help,
they’re not there to help.
They’re those who say, “Well, you deserve
that,” or “Why should I help you?”
These are individuals that
might say, “Well, I’m God,”
and it sounds as an statement but there
are individuals who believe that
saying, “I am so important and they get
something that’s termed the god complex.
And you see this sometimes
with individuals who have --
do have highly impactful
or important jobs.
Things like doctors that are a world renowned
neural surgeons and are saving lives,
but that doesn’t necessarily mean
that they’re better than, say,
the nurse who’s assisting
in the surgery.
So if you are trying to get in
medical don’t become narcissistic.
So OCD is one that we’ve mentioned.
This is something called
obsessive-compulsive personality disorder
and then this is where their personality
now is shaped by their OCD.
And so, they have overarching
concern with things being perfect,
so, concerned with orderliness, perfectionism,
and control over one’s environment.
So back to that, my
example of their desk.
They obsess about themselves
and their room and their desk,
everything needs to be perfect
and to the point again where it supersedes
and becomes the primary goal
of their daily functioning.