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Liver and Gallbladder – Digestive System Organs (Nursing)

by Jasmine Clark

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    00:02 So before we get to the small intestine, it's important to talk about the other accessory organs that are going to be involved or associate with the small intestine.

    00:14 These include the liver which is going to have the function of producing bile, which is very important or necessary for the emulsification of fat.

    00:25 The gallbladder which is going to store the bile until it is needed for fat emulsification.

    00:33 And also the pancreas.

    00:36 The pancreas is very important because it supplies most of the enzymes needed to digest chyme.

    00:43 It is also going to contain bicarbonate which helps to neutralize that stomach acid that's going to be entering into the duodenum.

    00:55 Taking a closer look at the liver at the microscopic level.

    00:59 We find that the liver is made up of liver lobules.

    01:04 These are hexagonal structures and functional units composed of plates of hepatocyte that are going to filter and process nutrient-rich blood that returns to the liver by way of hepatic portal circulation.

    01:21 Each lobule contains a central vein.

    01:24 It is located in its longitudinal axis.

    01:29 At the corner of each lobule you have what's known as the portal triad.

    01:35 This is going to include a branch of the hepatic artery, which is going to supply oxygen a branch of the hepatic portal vein, which is going to bring nutrient-rich blood from the intestines, and a bile duct which is going to receive bile from the bile canaliculi.

    01:56 Hepatocyte also have an increased rough and smooth ER Golgi apparatus, peroxisomes, and mitochondria.

    02:06 These help with the function of the hepatocyte, which is to produce about 900 milliliters of bile per day.

    02:16 The hepatocyte are also going to be processing blood-borne nutrients such as glucose, which will then be stored as glycogen as well as making plasma proteins.

    02:30 The hepatocyte are also going to be responsible for the storage of fat soluble vitamins.

    02:36 And also the hepatocytes are very important in detoxification.

    02:42 This includes things like converting ammonia to urea when we take in or when we bring in a lot of amino acids, but it's also important for drugs that we bring into our bodies.

    02:55 This is where the detoxification process and our bodies are is going take place.

    03:01 Recall that the hepatocyte of the liver are going to be responsible for creating bile.

    03:08 Bile is a yellow-green alkaline solution that contains bile salts which are the cholesterol derivatives that are going to function in fat emulsification and fat absorption in the small intestines.

    03:24 Bile also contains bilirubin, which is a pigment that is formed from heme.

    03:30 This pigment is broken down by bacteria in the intestines to stercobilin and from here it gives the feces it's brown color.

    03:41 Also found in bile we have cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids and some electrolytes.

    03:51 The entero hepatic circulation is going to involve as recycling mechanism that is going to conserve our bile salts.

    04:00 Most of our bile salts are reabsorbed into the blood by the ileum, which is the last part of the small intestine.

    04:08 From there it is returned to the liver by way of the hepatic portal blood it is then re secreted in newly-formed bile.

    04:19 So in our bodies about 95% of our bile salts that are secreted are then recycled.

    04:26 So that we're only making about 5% of nubile each time it circulates.

    04:34 The next major organ that is important for the functioning of the small intestine is the gallbladder.

    04:42 The gallbladder is a thin-walled muscular sac found on the ventral surface of the liver.

    04:49 It functions to store and concentrate bile by absorbing water and ions in the bile.

    04:57 It contains many honeycomb folds that allow for it to expand as it fills.

    05:04 And then when stimulated muscular contractions are going to release that bile into a duct known as the cystic duct.

    05:14 This is going to then flow into the bile duct.


    About the Lecture

    The lecture Liver and Gallbladder – Digestive System Organs (Nursing) by Jasmine Clark is from the course Gastrointestinal System – Physiology (Nursing).


    Included Quiz Questions

    1. Store fat-soluble vitamins
    2. Perform detoxification
    3. Break down bacteria
    4. Store bile
    5. Produce bile
    1. Pancreas
    2. Liver
    3. Spleen
    4. Gallbladder
    1. Bile salts
    2. Hepatocytes
    3. Bilirubin
    4. Stercobilin

    Author of lecture Liver and Gallbladder – Digestive System Organs (Nursing)

     Jasmine Clark

    Jasmine Clark


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